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This paper describes the design, implementation, and application of a new algorithm to detect cloned code. It operates on the abstract syntax trees formed by many compilers as an intermediate representation. It extends prior work by identifying clones even when arbitrary subtrees have been changed. On a 440,000-line code corpus, 20-50% of the clones it(More)
Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are two key downstream signals of auxin, a well-known phytohormone regulating plant growth and development. However, the inter-relationship between HO-1 and H2O2 in auxin-mediated lateral root (LR) formation is poorly understood. Herein, we revealed that exogenous auxin, 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), could(More)
BACKGROUND Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is activated by low pH/protons and is well known to be involved in hyperalgesia during inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, is involved in nociceptive responses causing hyperalgesia through TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1) activation. Reactive oxygen(More)
A majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations reported to be implicated in diseases are heteroplasmic, a status with coexisting mtDNA variants in a single cell. Quantifying the prevalence of mitochondrial heteroplasmy and its pathogenic effect in healthy individuals could further our understanding of its possible roles in various diseases. A total of(More)
BACKGROUND Pyropia haitanensis and P. yezoensis are two economically important marine crops that are also considered to be research models to study the physiological ecology of intertidal seaweed communities, evolutionary biology of plastids, and the origins of sexual reproduction. This plastid genome information will facilitate study of breeding,(More)
Amphioxus has been an important model for understanding the evolution of chordates and origin of vertebrates. Comparative transcriptome analysis can facilitate delineation of gene expression patterns of amphioxus at different developmental stages. So far, however, few such analyses have been performed. Here we have systematically compared amphioxus ESTs(More)
INTRODUCTION Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is constitutively expressed in urothelial cells that also express protease-activated receptors (PAR). Urothelial PAR1 receptors were shown to mediate bladder inflammation. We showed that PAR1 and PAR4 activator, thrombin, also mediates urothelial MIF release. We(More)
Native and Ca(2+)-depleted light-harvesting-reaction center core complexes (LH1-RC) from the photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum exhibit maximal LH1-Q(y) absorption at 915 and 889 nm, respectively. To understand the structural origins of the spectral variation, we performed spectroscopic and structure modeling investigations. For the(More)
In many plant species, leaf morphology varies with altitude, an effect that has been attributed to temperature. It remains uncertain whether such a trend applies equally to juvenile and mature trees across altitudinal gradients in semi-arid mountain regions. We examined altitude-related differences in a variety of needle characteristics of juvenile (2-m(More)
BACKGROUND The luminal A subtype of breast cancer has a good prognosis and is sensitive to endocrine therapy but is less sensitive to chemotherapy. It is necessary to identify biomarkers to predict chemosensitivity and avoid over-treatment. We hypothesized that miRNAs in the serum might be associated with chemosensitivity. METHODS Sixty-eight breast(More)