Learn More
Chromosomal translocations involving antigen receptor loci are common in lymphoid malignancies. Translocations require DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at two chromosomal sites, their physical juxtaposition, and their fusion by end-joining. Ability of lymphocytes to generate diverse repertoires of antigen receptors and effector antibodies derives from(More)
The unicellular eukaryotic organisms represent the popular model systems to understand aging in eukaryotes. Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, appears to be another distinctive unicellular aging model in addition to the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The two types of Candida cells, yeast(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) and Ig variable region somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B lymphocytes by deaminating cytidines on template and nontemplate strands of transcribed DNA substrates. However, the mechanism of AID access to the template DNA strand,(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates both somatic hypermutation (SHM) for antibody affinity maturation and DNA breakage for antibody class switch recombination (CSR) via transcription-dependent cytidine deamination of single-stranded DNA targets. Though largely specific for immunoglobulin genes, AID also acts on a limited set of(More)
During B-cell development, RAG endonuclease cleaves immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) V, D, and J gene segments and orchestrates their fusion as deletional events that assemble a V(D)J exon in the same transcriptional orientation as adjacent Cμ constant region exons. In mice, six additional sets of constant region exons (CHs) lie 100-200 kilobases downstream(More)
Telomeres are protein-DNA structures found at the ends of linear chromosomes and are crucial for genome integrity. Telomeric DNA length is primarily maintained by the enzyme telomerase. Cells lacking telomerase will undergo senescence when telomeres become critically short. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a very small percentage of cells lacking telomerase can(More)
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the linear ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere integrity is required for cell proliferation and survival. Although the vast majority of eukaryotic species use telomerase as a primary means for telomere maintenance, a few species can use recombination or retrotransposon-mediated maintenance pathways.(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae at least five genes, EST1, EST2, EST3, TLC1 and CDC13, are required for telomerase activity in vivo. The telomerase catalytic subunit Est2p and telomerase RNA subunit Tlc1 constitute the telomerase core enzyme. Est1p and Est3p are the other subunits of telomerase holoenzyme. In order to dissect the function of Est3p in telomere(More)
In telomerase negative yeast cells, Rad52-dependent recombination is activated to maintain telomeres. This recombination-mediated telomere elongation usually involves two independent pathways, type I and type II, and leads to generation of type I and type II survivors. It remains elusive whether the recombination-mediated telomere elongation prefers to take(More)
In activated B lymphocytes, AID initiates antibody variable (V) exon somatic hypermutation (SHM) for affinity maturation in germinal centers (GCs) and IgH switch (S) region DNA breaks (DSBs) for class-switch recombination (CSR). To resolve long-standing questions, we have developed an in vivo assay to study AID targeting of passenger sequences replacing a V(More)