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Just as neuronal activity is essential to normal brain function, microtubule-associated protein tau appears to be critical to normal neuronal activity in the mammalian brain, especially in the evolutionary most advanced species, the homo sapiens. While the loss of functional tau can be compensated by the other two neuronal microtubule-associated proteins,(More)
Microtubule-associated protein tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated and aggregated into neurofibrillary tangles in brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Tau pathology is critical to pathogenesis and correlates to the severity of dementia. However, the mechanisms leading to abnormal hyperphosphorylation are unknown.(More)
Alzheimer disease (AD) and related tauopathies are histopathologically characterized by a specific type of slow and progressive neurodegeneration, which involves the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule associated protein (MAP) tau. This hallmark, called neurofibrillary degeneration, is seen as neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, and(More)
Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau is believed to lead to neurofibrillary degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Recent studies have shown that protein phosphatases (PPs) PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP5 dephosphorylate tau in vitro, but the exact role of each of these phosphatases in the regulation of site-specific phosphorylation of tau(More)
Tau is the major microtubule associated protein (MAP) of a mature neuron. The other two neuronal MAPs are MAP1 and MAP2. An established function of MAPs is their interaction with tubulin and promotion of its assembly into microtubules and stabilization of the microtubule network. The microtubule assembly promoting activity of tau, a phosphoprotein, is(More)
As a principal neuronal microtubule-associated protein, tau has been recognized to play major roles in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilizing the microtubules and to maintain the normal morphology of the neurons. Recent studies suggest that tau, upon alternative mRNA splicing and multiple posttranslational modifications, may participate in the(More)
Ribosomal frameshifting occurs when a ribosome slips a few nucleotides on an mRNA and generates a new sequence of amino acids. Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1PRF) is used in various systems to express two or more proteins from a single mRNA at precisely regulated levels. We used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to(More)
Brain glucose uptake/metabolism is impaired in Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we report that levels of the two major brain glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT3) responsible for glucose uptake into neurons were decreased in AD brain. This decrease correlated to the decrease in O-GlcNAcylation, to the hyperphosphorylation of tau, and to the density of(More)
Phosphorylation of tau protein is regulated by several kinases, especially glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (cdk5) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Phosphorylation of tau by PKA primes it for phosphorylation by GSK-3beta, but the site-specific modulation of GSK-3beta-catalyzed tau phosphorylation by the(More)
A disturbance of calcium homeostasis is believed to play an important role in the neurodegeneration of the brains of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, but the molecular pathways by which it contributes to the disease are not well understood. Here we studied the activation of two major Ca(2+)-regulated brain proteins, calpain and calcineurin, in AD brain. We(More)