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Wireless sensor networks have many applications, vary in size, and are deployed in a wide variety of areas. They are often deployed in potentially adverse or even hostile environment so that there are concerns on security issues in these networks. Sensor nodes used to form these networks are resource-constrained, which make security applications a(More)
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, and the habenulo-interpeduncular projection is a major cholinergic pathway in the brain. To study the physiological properties of cholinergic transmission in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), we used a transgenic mouse line in which the light-gated cation channel ChannelRhodopsin-2 is selectively expressed in(More)
Software-defined network (SDN) has become one of the most important architectures for the management of largescale complex networks, which may require repolicing or reconfigurations from time to time. SDN achieves easy repolicing by decoupling the control plane from data plane. Thus, the network routers/switches just simply forward packets by following the(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain is a key center for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-expressing neurons. Serotonergic neurons in the DRN have been theorized to encode punishment by opposing the reward signaling of dopamine neurons. Here, we show that DRN neurons encode reward, but not punishment, through 5-HT and glutamate. Optogenetic(More)
Biomedical sensors, called invivo sensors, are implanted in human bodies, and cause some harmful effects on surrounding body tissues. Particularly, temperature rise of the invivo sensors is dangerous for surrounding tissues, and a high temperature may damage them from a long term monitoring. In this paper, we propose a thermal-aware routing algorithm,(More)
In future smart environments, ad hoc sensor networks will play a key role in sensing, collecting, and disseminating information about environmental phenomena. As sensor networks come to be wide-spread deployment, security issues become a central concern. So far, the main research focus has been on making sensor networks feasible and useful, and less(More)
In this paper, we propose Least Total-RouteTemperature (LTRT), a thermal aware routing algorithm, to reduce temperature caused by biomedical sensors implanted in human bodies. In the proposed scheme, nodes’ temperatures are converted into graph weights and minimum temperature routes are obtained. Simulations are conducted to show the advantages of the(More)