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In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: Abstract Wireless sensor networks have many applications, vary in size, and are(More)
In future smart environments, ad hoc sensor networks will play a key role in sensing, collecting, and disseminating information about environmental phenomena. As sensor networks come to be widespread deployment, security issues become a central concern. So far, the main research focus has been on making sensor networks feasible and useful, and less emphasis(More)
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain is a key center for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-expressing neurons. Serotonergic neurons in the DRN have been theorized to encode punishment by opposing the reward signaling of dopamine neurons. Here, we show that DRN neurons encode reward, but not punishment, through 5-HT and glutamate. Optogenetic(More)
—Software-defined network (SDN) has become one of the most important architectures for the management of large-scale complex networks, which may require repolicing or recon-figurations from time to time. SDN achieves easy repolicing by decoupling the control plane from data plane. Thus, the network routers/switches just simply forward packets by following(More)
The rapid accumulation of whole-genome data has renewed interest in the study of using gene-order data for phylogenetic analyses and ancestral reconstruction. Current software and web servers typically do not support duplication and loss events along with rearrangements. MLGOMLGO (Maximum Likelihood for Gene-Order Analysis) is a web tool for the(More)
Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, and the habenulo-interpeduncular projection is a major cholinergic pathway in the brain. To study the physiological properties of cholinergic transmission in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), we used a transgenic mouse line in which the light-gated cation channel ChannelRhodopsin-2 is selectively expressed in(More)
The most important issue in wireless sensor networks is energy consumption. To this end, many networking schemes attempt to minimize the amount of data transmitted by using data aggregation. This trades off data freshness for a savings in energy, because reports from sensor nodes that arrive at an aggregating node may have to be held there for some period(More)
Biomedical sensors, called invivo sensors, are implanted in human bodies, and cause some harmful effects on surrounding body tissues. Particularly, temperature rise of the invivo sensors is dangerous for surrounding tissues, and a high temperature may damage them from a long term monitoring. In this paper, we propose a thermal-aware routing algorithm,(More)
In this paper, we use an integrated architecture that takes advantage of the low cost mobile sensor networks and 3G cellular networks to accommodate multimedia medical calls with differentiated Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. We propose a low-energy, distributed, and concentric-zone-based data query mechanism that takes advantages of hierarchical ad(More)