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Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the spinal dorsal horn has been shown to be essential for the initiation of central sensitization and the hyperexcitability of dorsal horn neurons in chronic pain. However, whether the spinal NR2B-containing NMDA (NMDA-2B) receptors are involved still remains largely unclear. Using behavioral test and(More)
The NMDA receptor and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are involved in central sensitization and synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord. To determine whether the spinal cord BDNF contributes to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain by activation of the dorsal horn NR2B-containing NMDA (NMDA-2B) receptors, this study was designed to(More)
BACKGROUND Bone cancer pain seriously affects the quality of life of cancer patients. Our previous study found that endogenous formaldehyde was produced by cancer cells metastasized into bone marrows and played an important role in bone cancer pain. However, the mechanism of production of this endogenous formaldehyde by metastatic cancer cells was unknown(More)
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in nociceptive neurons of rat dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and mediate inflammatory pain. Nonspecific inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitizes TRPV1. However, less is known about tyrosine phosphorylation's(More)
Neurosteroids are synthesized in the nervous system from cholesterol or steroidal precursors imported from peripheral sources. These compounds are important allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors, which play a vital role in modulating hippocampal functions. Chronic pain is accompanied by increased neurosteroid production in the spinal cord and thalamus.(More)
The hippocampus is actively involved in pain modulation. Previous studies have shown that inhibition, resection or pharmacological interference of the hippocampus or its subcortical afferent sources such as the medial septum and amygdala produce anti-nociceptive effects. But how the cortical connections of the hippocampus modulate pain remains unexplored.(More)
Cognitive behavioral therapy, such as environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx), is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain. However, the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of EE-VEx remain unclear. In mice with intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, our results(More)
The ventrobasal (VB) thalamus is innervated by GABAergic afferents from the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and participates in nociception. But how the TRN-VB pathway regulates pain is not fully understood. In the present study, we reported decreased extracellular GABA levels in the VB of rats with CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain, measured by(More)
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