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Despite the essential role of the brain energy generated from ATP hydrolysis in supporting cortical neuronal activity and brain function, it is challenging to noninvasively image and directly quantify the energy expenditure in the human brain. In this study, we applied an advanced in vivo(31)P MRS imaging approach to obtain regional cerebral metabolic rates(More)
Despite progress in cardiovascular research, a cure for peripheral vascular disease has not been found. We compared the vascularization and tissue regeneration potential of murine and human undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells (mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U), murine MAPC-derived vascular progenitors (mMAPC-VP), and unselected murine BM cells (mBMCs) in(More)
The contractile vacuole (CV) system is the osmoregulatory organelle required for survival for many free-living cells under hypotonic conditions. We identified a new CV regulator, Disgorgin, a TBC-domain-containing protein, which translocates to the CV membrane at the late stage of CV charging and regulates CV-plasma membrane fusion and discharging.(More)
The development of root hair includes four stages: bulge site selection, bulge formation, tip growth, and maturation. The actin cytoskeleton is involved in all of these stages and is organized into distinct arrangements in the different stages. In addition to the actin configuration, actin isoforms also play distinct roles in the different stages. The actin(More)
Formins have been paid much attention for their potent nucleating activity. However, the connection between the in vivo functions of AtFHs (Arabidopsis thaliana formin homologs) and their effects on actin organization is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the bundling activity of AtFH8 in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical analysis showed that(More)
BACKGROUND Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the(More)
Cerebral glucose consumption and glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier are crucial to brain function since glucose is the major energy fuel for supporting intense electrophysiological activity associated with neuronal firing and signaling. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods to measure the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of blood component ratios on the survival of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been studied. METHODS A database of patients transfused in the first 24 hours after admission for injury from 22 Level I trauma centers over an 18-month period was queried to find patients who (1) met different definitions of massive(More)
A majority of ATP in the brain is formed in the mitochondria through oxidative phosphorylation of ADP with the F(1)F(0)-ATP (ATPase) enzyme. This ATP production rate plays central roles in brain bioenergetics, function and neurodegeneration. In vivo (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with magnetization transfer (MT) is the sole approach able to(More)
• Villin is one of the major actin filament bundling proteins in plants. The function of Arabidopsis VILLINs (AtVLNs) is still poorly understood in living cells. In this report, the biochemical activity and cellular function of AtVLN4 were examined. • The biochemical property of AtVLN4 was characterized by co-sedimentation assays, fluorescence microscopy(More)