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Despite the essential role of the brain energy generated from ATP hydrolysis in supporting cortical neuronal activity and brain function, it is challenging to noninvasively image and directly quantify the energy expenditure in the human brain. In this study, we applied an advanced in vivo(31)P MRS imaging approach to obtain regional cerebral metabolic rates(More)
The contractile vacuole (CV) system is the osmoregulatory organelle required for survival for many free-living cells under hypotonic conditions. We identified a new CV regulator, Disgorgin, a TBC-domain-containing protein, which translocates to the CV membrane at the late stage of CV charging and regulates CV-plasma membrane fusion and discharging.(More)
Formins have been paid much attention for their potent nucleating activity. However, the connection between the in vivo functions of AtFHs (Arabidopsis thaliana formin homologs) and their effects on actin organization is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the bundling activity of AtFH8 in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical analysis showed that(More)
The development of root hair includes four stages: bulge site selection, bulge formation, tip growth, and maturation. The actin cytoskeleton is involved in all of these stages and is organized into distinct arrangements in the different stages. In addition to the actin configuration, actin isoforms also play distinct roles in the different stages. The actin(More)
• Villin is one of the major actin filament bundling proteins in plants. The function of Arabidopsis VILLINs (AtVLNs) is still poorly understood in living cells. In this report, the biochemical activity and cellular function of AtVLN4 were examined. • The biochemical property of AtVLN4 was characterized by co-sedimentation assays, fluorescence microscopy(More)
A majority of ATP in the brain is formed in the mitochondria through oxidative phosphorylation of ADP with the F(1)F(0)-ATP (ATPase) enzyme. This ATP production rate plays central roles in brain bioenergetics, function and neurodegeneration. In vivo (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with magnetization transfer (MT) is the sole approach able to(More)
Despite progress in cardiovascular research, a cure for peripheral vascular disease has not been found. We compared the vascularization and tissue regeneration potential of murine and human undifferentiated multipotent adult progenitor cells (mMAPC-U and hMAPC-U), murine MAPC-derived vascular progenitors (mMAPC-VP), and unselected murine BM cells (mBMCs) in(More)
The greatest merit of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methodology used in biomedical research is its ability for noninvasively measuring a variety of metabolites inside a living organ. It, therefore, provides an invaluable tool for determining metabolites, chemical reaction rates and bioenergetics, as well as their dynamic changes in the human(More)
PURPOSE The results of salvage radiation therapy for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels after radical prostatectomy appear favorable, but the ultimate outcome is uncertain, given the relatively short follow-up in most studies. We report on a group of patients at a median follow-up of 13.9 years after salvage radiation therapy. METHODS AND(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand the changes of hepatitis B infection rates, before and after the hepatitis B vaccine was included into EPI, and to evaluate the effect of immunization which would lead to the development of a more appropriate hepatitis B control strategy. METHODS Seroepidemiologic method, with multi-section random sampling method were chosen. 14(More)