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Despite the essential role of the brain energy generated from ATP hydrolysis in supporting cortical neuronal activity and brain function, it is challenging to noninvasively image and directly quantify the energy expenditure in the human brain. In this study, we applied an advanced in vivo(31)P MRS imaging approach to obtain regional cerebral metabolic rates(More)
The development of root hair includes four stages: bulge site selection, bulge formation, tip growth, and maturation. The actin cytoskeleton is involved in all of these stages and is organized into distinct arrangements in the different stages. In addition to the actin configuration, actin isoforms also play distinct roles in the different stages. The actin(More)
BACKGROUND In schizophrenia (SZ), disturbances in integration of activity among brain regions seem to be as important as abnormal activity of any single region. Brain regions are connected through white matter (WM) tracts, and diffusion tensor imaging has provided compelling evidence for WM abnormalities in SZ. However, diffusion tensor imaging alone cannot(More)
ATP metabolism is controlled mainly by ATP synthase (ATP(ase)) and creatine kinase (CK) reactions that regulate cerebral ATP production, transportation, and utilization. These coupled reactions constitute a chemical exchange metabolic network of PCr<-->ATP<-->Pi characterized by two forward and two reverse reaction fluxes, which can be studied noninvasively(More)
INTRODUCTION Despite the prevalence, associated comorbidities, and functional consequences of bipolar depression (BPD), underlying disease mechanisms remain unclear. Published studies of individuals with bipolar disorder implicate abnormalities in cellular energy metabolism. This study tests the hypotheses that the forward rate constant (k(for)) of creatine(More)
White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities(More)
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that microstructural abnormalities in the white matter are important in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Diffusion MRI approaches which can provide evidence on tissue structure have been widely used to probe these abnormalities in vivo, but transverse relaxation times (T2) may provide additional insights since they(More)
The highly structured search algorithm proposed by Hogg[Phys.Rev.Lett. 80,2473(1998)] is implemented experimentally for the 1-SAT problem in a single search step by using nuclear magnetic resonance technique with two-qubit sample. It is the first demonstration of the Hogg's algorithm, and can be readily extended to solving 1-SAT problem for more qubits in(More)
In this manuscript we present novel MRI approaches to dissecting axon vs. myelin abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. Existing DTI approaches are not able to provide specific information on these subcellular elements but novel approaches are beginning to do so. We review two approaches (magnetization transfer ratio-MTR; and diffusion tensor(More)
In this paper, we propose a method for recovering the re-flectance properties of a moving Lambertian object from an image sequence of the object taken by a fixed camera under unknown, complex illumination. Our proposed method is based on the spherical-harmonic representation of Lamber-tian reflectance under arbitrary illumination. Then, by combining the(More)