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Alditol oxidase (AldO) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is a soluble monomeric flavin-dependent oxidase that performs selective oxidation of the terminal primary hydroxyl group of several alditols. Here, we report the crystal structure of the recombinant enzyme in its native state and in complex with both six-carbon (mannitol and sorbitol) and five-carbon(More)
A variety of chromatin remodeling complexes are thought to orchestrate transcriptional programs that lead neuronal precursors from earliest commitment to terminal differentiation. Here we show that mammalian neurons have a specialized chromatin remodeling enzyme arising from a neurospecific splice variant of LSD1/KDM1, histone lysine specific demethylase 1,(More)
LSD1 and LSD2 histone demethylases are implicated in a number of physiological and pathological processes, ranging from tumorigenesis to herpes virus infection. A comprehensive structural, biochemical, and cellular study is presented here to probe the potential of these enzymes for epigenetic therapies. This approach employs tranylcypromine as a chemical(More)
Histone demethylase LSD1 regulates transcription by demethylating Lys(4) of histone H3. The crystal structure of the enzyme in complex with CoREST and a substrate-like peptide inhibitor highlights an intricate network of interactions and a folded conformation of the bound peptide. The core of the peptide structure is formed by Arg(2), Gln(5), and Ser(10),(More)
Activation of the complement system results in formation of membrane attack complexes (MACs), pores that disrupt lipid bilayers and lyse bacteria and other pathogens. Here, we present the crystal structure of the first assembly intermediate, C5b6, together with a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a soluble, regulated form of the pore, sC5b9.(More)
Methylation of Lys residues on histone proteins is a well known and extensively characterized epigenetic mark. The recent discovery of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) demonstrated that lysine methylation can be dynamically controlled. Among the histone demethylases so far identified, LSD1 has the unique feature of functioning through a flavin-dependent(More)
Three years after its discovery, lysine-specific demethylase 1 remains at the forefront of chromatin research. Its demethylase activity on Lys4 of histone H3 supports its role in gene repression. By contrast, the biochemical mechanisms underlying lysine-specific demethylase 1 involvement in transcriptional activation are not firmly established. Structural(More)
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptors 4-6 (LGR4-LGR6) are receptors for R-spondins, potent Wnt agonists that exert profound trophic effects on Wnt-driven stem cells compartments. We present crystal structures of a signaling-competent fragment of R-spondin 1 (Rspo1) at a resolution of 2.0 Å and its complex with the LGR5 ectodomain at a(More)
Zinc RING finger 3 (ZNRF3) and its homolog RING finger 43 (RNF43) antagonize Wnt signaling in adult stem cells by ubiquitinating Frizzled receptors (FZD), which leads to endocytosis of the Wnt receptor. Conversely, binding of ZNRF3/RNF43 to LGR4-6 - R-spondin blocks Frizzled ubiquitination and enhances Wnt signaling. Here, we present crystal structures of(More)
Activation of the complement cascade induces inflammatory responses and marks cells for immune clearance. In the central complement-amplification step, a complex consisting of surface-bound C3b and factor B is cleaved by factor D to generate active convertases on targeted surfaces. We present crystal structures of the pro-convertase C3bB at 4 angstrom(More)