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Virtually every mammalian cell contains mitochondria. These double-membrane organelles continuously change shape and position and contain the complete metabolic machinery for the oxidative conversion of pyruvate, fatty acids, and amino acids into ATP. Mitochondria are crucially involved in cellular Ca2+ and redox homeostasis and apoptosis induction.(More)
Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a major cause of early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have highlighted an important function for PINK1 in clearing depolarized mitochondria by mitophagy. However, the role of PINK1 in mitochondrial and cellular functioning in(More)
In mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) restores renal tubular structure and improves renal function, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we examined the process of kidney cell repair in co-culture experiments with MSC and cisplatin-injured proximal tubular epithelial(More)
AIMS Cell regulation by signaling reactive oxygen species (sROS) is often incorrectly studied through extracellular oxidant addition. Here, we used the membrane-permeable antioxidant Trolox to examine the role of sROS in mitochondrial morphology, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) handling in healthy human skin fibroblasts.(More)
The human NDUFS4 gene encodes an accessory subunit of the first mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex (CI) and, when mutated, is associated with progressive neurological disorders. Here we analyzed primary muscle and skin fibroblasts from NDUFS4(-/-) mice with respect to reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial morphology.(More)
Mitochondrial complex I (CI) is a multi-subunit enzyme that forms the major entry point of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) electrons into the respiratory chain. Mutations in the NDUFS4 gene, encoding an accessory subunit of this complex, cause a Leigh-like phenotype in humans. To study the nature and penetrance of the CI defect in different(More)
Shiga toxins (Stx) are the virulence factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, a worldwide emerging diarrheal pathogen, which precipitates postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome, the leading cause of acute renal failure in children. In this study, we show that Stx2 triggered expression of fractalkine (FKN), a CX3C transmembrane chemokine,(More)
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I is a large multisubunit assembly of the mitochondrial inner membrane that channels high-energy electrons from metabolic NADH into the electron transport chain (ETC). Its dysfunction is associated with a range of progressive neurological disorders, often characterized by a very early onset and short devastating(More)
Proper cell functioning requires precise coordination between mitochondrial ATP production and local energy demand. Ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a central role in this coupling because it activates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) during hormonal and electrical cell stimulation. To determine how mitochondrial dysfunction affects cytosolic(More)