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Virtually every mammalian cell contains mitochondria. These double-membrane organelles continuously change shape and position and contain the complete metabolic machinery for the oxidative conversion of pyruvate, fatty acids, and amino acids into ATP. Mitochondria are crucially involved in cellular Ca2+ and redox homeostasis and apoptosis induction.(More)
Proper cell functioning requires precise coordination between mitochondrial ATP production and local energy demand. Ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a central role in this coupling because it activates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) during hormonal and electrical cell stimulation. To determine how mitochondrial dysfunction affects cytosolic(More)
Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a major cause of early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have highlighted an important function for PINK1 in clearing depolarized mitochondria by mitophagy. However, the role of PINK1 in mitochondrial and cellular functioning in(More)
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I is a large multisubunit assembly of the mitochondrial inner membrane that channels high-energy electrons from metabolic NADH into the electron transport chain (ETC). Its dysfunction is associated with a range of progressive neurological disorders, often characterized by a very early onset and short devastating(More)
Thirty-three patients have been treated with balloon catheters since 1978. Debrun's detachable balloons were used in 31 and a Fogarty catheter in the other two. Problems were encountered from the introduction of the catheter to the detachment of the balloon. We have treated 21 fistulas between the internal carotid and cavernous sinus, 3 fistulas between the(More)
Mitochondrial complex I (CI) is a multi-subunit enzyme that forms the major entry point of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) electrons into the respiratory chain. Mutations in the NDUFS4 gene, encoding an accessory subunit of this complex, cause a Leigh-like phenotype in humans. To study the nature and penetrance of the CI defect in different(More)
Complex I (CI) represents a major entry point of electrons in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). It consists of 45 different subunits, encoded by the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA). In humans, mutations in nDNA-encoded subunits cause severe neurodegenerative disorders like Leigh Syndrome with onset in early childhood. The(More)
Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism for metabolic adaptation. cAMP signaling and PKA phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins have just started to be investigated, and the presence of cAMP-generating enzymes and PKA inside mitochondria is still controversial. Here, we discuss the role of cAMP in regulating(More)
During a 4 year period, 48 patients were treated with balloon catheters. There were 39 fistulas and nine aneurysms. Detachable balloons with a modified Debrun technique were used in 37 patients. Different kinds of technical problems were encountered. The arterial axis remained patent in 29 of the 37 fistulas; in the two mixed internal and external(More)