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Seminal fluid often makes up a large part of an ejaculate, yet most empirical and theoretical studies on sperm competition have focused on how sperm characteristics (number and quality) affect fertilization success. However, seminal fluid influences own sperm performance and may potentially influence the outcome of sperm competition, by also affecting that(More)
The modal cutoff of square-lattice photonic crystal fibers with a finite number of air-hole rings has been accurately investigated to our knowledge for the first time. By analyzing the leaky behavior of the second-order mode, we have obtained a phase diagram that describes the regions of single-mode and multimode operation as well as the endlessly(More)
The influence of each cross-section geometric parameter on hollow-core Bragg fiber guiding properties has been numerically investigated. Fabricated fibers have been modeled, giving insight into the spectral behavior of the confinement loss. It has been verified that, by changing the amount of silica and air in the fiber cladding, it is possible to change(More)
In this paper the guiding properties of photonic crystal fibers with a square lattice of air-holes in a silica matrix have been studied for the first time. The dispersion curves of fibers with different hole-to-hole spacing and air-hole diameter have been accurately calculated. Negative values of the dispersion parameter and the dispersion slope have been(More)
Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) with small hole-to-hole spacing and large airholes are designed to compensate the anomalous dispersion and the dispersion slope of single-mode fibers. The geometrical parameters that characterize triangular MOFs are chosen to optimize the fiber length and the compensation over a wide wavelength range. A proper design of(More)
A new S-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier module with a double-pass configuration based on two circulators has been designed and constructed. The bending losses of a depressed-cladding doped fiber have been exploited to suppress the amplified spontaneous emission in the C band. The experimental characterization of the double-pass amplifier has shown that(More)
Female choice is often assumed to be based on absolute preference, driven by a threshold value of mate attractiveness. However, increasing evidence suggests that females may instead perform a comparative evaluation of prospective mates, possibly incurring in violation of rational decision rules (e.g. independence from irrelevant alternative, IIA). A(More)
A large-mode-area Ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with build-in gain shaping is presented. The fiber cladding consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes, where three rows are replaced with circular high-index inclusions. Seven missing air holes define the large-mode-area core. Light confinement is achieved by combined index and bandgap(More)
Yb-doped double-cladding large mode area rod-type photonic crystal fibers are a key component for power scaling in fiber laser systems. Recently, designs with 19-cell core defect, that is with 19 missing air-holes in the center of the photonic crystal cladding, have been proposed, with reported core diameter up to 100 μm. In this paper an analysis of the(More)