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BACKGROUND Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of multiple drugs in a large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient population, the virtual phenotype profiles for HIV in the plasma and CSF compartments, and the correlation of these profiles with exposure to antiretroviral therapy need to be further investigated. METHODS Drug(More)
We characterized 16 additional mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) whose role in drug resistance is still unknown by analyzing 1,906 plasma-derived HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences from 551 drug-naïve patients and 1,355 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-treated patients. Twelve mutations positively associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-class-wide resistance (DCWR) to antiretrovirals substantially reduces treatment options. METHODS A database of 602 patients failing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) undergoing genotypic resistance test (GRT) was analysed. DCWR was defined according to the International AIDS Society consensus. A multiple logistic regression(More)
Phylogenetic analysis and evaluation of drug-resistance were carried out upon 59 plasma samples from 58 treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected patients from Mozambique, enrolled in a free antiviral-therapy protocol in the frame of Drug-Resource-Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition (DREAM) programme. Sequencing of the first 1,300 bases of the pol-gene shows(More)
The association between minor mutations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease at baseline and development of common primary mutation 90M at virological failure (conferring some resistance to all protease inhibitors [PIs]) was evaluated in 93 previously drug-naive patients experiencing failure of their first PI-based antiretroviral regimens. In(More)
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy affects the pharmacokinetics of antiviral drugs and activates a cascade of events ultimately leading to therapeutic success or failure. An optimal adherence usually affords minimal rounds of virus replication and rare spontaneous mutations, which are unable to be fixed in the genome because of the competition of wild-type(More)
The role of mutations in protease (PR) and reverse-transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in predicting virologic failure was assessed in 248 antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive patients who began a PR inhibitor-containing antiretroviral regimen. Genotypic testing was performed on plasma samples stored before the start of therapy.(More)
Resistance to antivirals is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that involves more mutations than are currently known. Here, we characterize 10 additional mutations (L74V, K101Q, I135M/T, V179I, H221Y, K223E/Q, and L228H/R) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase which are involved in the regulation of resistance to nonnucleoside(More)
Through this study we evaluated whether the HIV-1 tropism determined by genotypic analysis correlates with HIV-1 markers, such as CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-RNA. The analysis was performed on 1221 HIV-1 B-subtype infected patients with an available V3 sequence (all maraviroc naive). Of them, 532 were antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive and 689 ART(More)
OBJECTIVES We evaluated the emergence of drug resistance in patients failing first-line regimens containing one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) administered with zidovudine (ZDV) + lamivudine (the ZDV group) or non-thymidine analogues (non-TAs) (tenofovir or abacavir, + lamivudine or emtricitabine; the non-TA group). METHODS Three(More)