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We characterized 16 additional mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) whose role in drug resistance is still unknown by analyzing 1,906 plasma-derived HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences from 551 drug-naïve patients and 1,355 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-treated patients. Twelve mutations positively associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of multiple drugs in a large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient population, the virtual phenotype profiles for HIV in the plasma and CSF compartments, and the correlation of these profiles with exposure to antiretroviral therapy need to be further investigated. METHODS Drug(More)
Resistance to antivirals is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that involves more mutations than are currently known. Here, we characterize 10 additional mutations (L74V, K101Q, I135M/T, V179I, H221Y, K223E/Q, and L228H/R) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase which are involved in the regulation of resistance to nonnucleoside(More)
Among 470 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and/or human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV/AIDS) who underwent genotype resistance testing (GRT) after the failure of therapy, 17 (3.6%) harbored the Q151M mutation. The Q151M mutation was associated with younger age, lower CD4(+) lymphocyte count, higher HIV RNA level, and treatment with(More)
The mutation RT-K65R confers resistance to tenofovir (TDF). Although its prevalence is increasing with the use of this drug, clinical and genotypic correlates of K65R occurrence have yet to be fully identified. Clinical, virological and immunological and genotypic data of patients naïve for TDF who failed HAART regimens and underwent genotypic resistance(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-class-wide resistance (DCWR) to antiretrovirals substantially reduces treatment options. METHODS A database of 602 patients failing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) undergoing genotypic resistance test (GRT) was analysed. DCWR was defined according to the International AIDS Society consensus. A multiple logistic regression(More)
Phylogenetic analysis and evaluation of drug-resistance were carried out upon 59 plasma samples from 58 treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected patients from Mozambique, enrolled in a free antiviral-therapy protocol in the frame of Drug-Resource-Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition (DREAM) programme. Sequencing of the first 1,300 bases of the pol-gene shows(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate genotypic resistance profiles to emtricitabine + tenofovir (FTC + TDF) in-vivo and in-vitro, and compare them with lamivudine + tenofovir (3TC + TDF). METHODS Three hundred fifty-two HIV-1 B-subtype pol sequences from 42 FTC + TDF-treated patients, 40 3TC + TDF-treated patients, and 270 patients treated with 3TC plus another(More)
The role of mutations in protease (PR) and reverse-transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in predicting virologic failure was assessed in 248 antiretroviral-naive HIV-positive patients who began a PR inhibitor-containing antiretroviral regimen. Genotypic testing was performed on plasma samples stored before the start of therapy.(More)
The association between minor mutations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease at baseline and development of common primary mutation 90M at virological failure (conferring some resistance to all protease inhibitors [PIs]) was evaluated in 93 previously drug-naive patients experiencing failure of their first PI-based antiretroviral regimens. In(More)