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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Reticulons are a family of highly conserved proteins, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and involved in different cellular functions, such as intracellular membrane trafficking, apoptosis and nuclear envelope formation. The reticulon protein family consists of four members, but their specific functions are presently poorly understood. RTN-1C(More)
BACKGROUND The lipid second messenger ceramide, which is generated by acidic and neutral sphingomyelinases or ceramide synthases, is a common intermediate of many apoptotic pathways. Metabolism of ceramide involves several enzymes, including glucosylceramide synthase and GD3 synthase, and results in the formation of gangliosides (GM3, GD3, and GT3), which(More)
The elimination of tumor cells by apoptosis is the main mechanism of action of chemotherapeutic drugs. More recently, autophagic cell death has been shown to trigger a nonapoptotic cell death program in cancer cells displaying functional defects of caspases. Fenretinide (FenR), a synthetic derivative of retinoic acid, promotes growth inhibition and induces(More)
Damage or stress in many organelles may trigger apoptosis by several not yet fully elucidated mechanisms. A cell death pathway is induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicited by the unfolded protein response and/or by aberrant Ca(2+) signalling. Reticulon-1C (RTN-1C) belongs to the reticulon family, neuroendocrine-specific proteins localized(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular site of polypeptide folding and modification. When these processes are hampered, an unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. If the damage is too broad, the mammalian UPR launches the apoptotic program. As a consequence, mobilization of ER calcium stores sensitizes mitochondria to direct proapoptotic(More)
Cells may use multiple pathways to commit suicide. In certain contexts, dying cells generate large amounts of autophagic vacuoles and clear large proportions of their cytoplasm, before they finally die, as exemplified by the treatment of human mammary carcinoma cells with the anti-estrogen tamoxifen (TAM, < or = 1 microM). Protein analysis during autophagic(More)
Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, has been implicated in many biological phenomena, including multidrug resistance. GCS inhibition, by both antisense and the specific inhibitor (D-threo)-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), results in a drastic decrease of apoptosis induced by the(More)
Some chemotherapeutic agents can elicit apoptotic cancer cell death, thereby activating an anticancer immune response that influences therapeutic outcome. We previously reported that anthracyclins are particularly efficient in inducing immunogenic cell death, correlating with the pre-apoptotic exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the plasma membrane surface of(More)
The retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) plays an important role in controlling both cell release from the G1 phase and apoptosis. We show here that in the early phases of apoptosis, pRB is posttranslationally modified by a tissue transglutaminase (tTG)-catalyzed reaction. In fact, by employing a novel haptenized lysis synthetic substrate which allows the(More)