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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Reticulons are a family of highly conserved proteins, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and involved in different cellular functions, such as intracellular membrane trafficking, apoptosis and nuclear envelope formation. The reticulon protein family consists of four members, but their specific functions are presently poorly understood. RTN-1C(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular site of polypeptide folding and modification. When these processes are hampered, an unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. If the damage is too broad, the mammalian UPR launches the apoptotic program. As a consequence, mobilization of ER calcium stores sensitizes mitochondria to direct proapoptotic(More)
BACKGROUND The lipid second messenger ceramide, which is generated by acidic and neutral sphingomyelinases or ceramide synthases, is a common intermediate of many apoptotic pathways. Metabolism of ceramide involves several enzymes, including glucosylceramide synthase and GD3 synthase, and results in the formation of gangliosides (GM3, GD3, and GT3), which(More)
A major problem in assessing the role of calpains in apoptosis induction concerns the fact that calpain inhibitors can also impair the activity of the proteasome, also reported to be involved in apoptosis. Herein we showed that apoptosis induced by calphostin C in U937 human promonocytic leukemia cells was associated, at its onset, with enhanced protein(More)
The elimination of tumor cells by apoptosis is the main mechanism of action of chemotherapeutic drugs. More recently, autophagic cell death has been shown to trigger a nonapoptotic cell death program in cancer cells displaying functional defects of caspases. Fenretinide (FenR), a synthetic derivative of retinoic acid, promotes growth inhibition and induces(More)
Doxorubicin (0.5 microgram/ml) induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and CHP-100 neuroepithelioma cells. The apoptotic response started to be evident approximately 15 h after drug administration and, as monitored over a 48-h period, was more pronounced in CHP-100 than in SH-SY5Y cells. In both systems, apoptosis was accompanied by(More)
The synthetic retinoid fenretinide [N-(4 hydroxyphenyl)retinamide] induces apoptosis of cancer cells and acts synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs, thus providing opportunities for novel approaches to cancer therapy. The upstream signaling events induced by fenretinide include an increase in intracellular levels of ceramide, which is subsequently(More)
Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, has been implicated in many biological phenomena, including multidrug resistance. GCS inhibition, by both antisense and the specific inhibitor (D-threo)-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), results in a drastic decrease of apoptosis induced by the(More)
Damage or stress in many organelles may trigger apoptosis by several not yet fully elucidated mechanisms. A cell death pathway is induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicited by the unfolded protein response and/or by aberrant Ca(2+) signalling. Reticulon-1C (RTN-1C) belongs to the reticulon family, neuroendocrine-specific proteins localized(More)