Federica Di Sano

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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
BACKGROUND The lipid second messenger ceramide, which is generated by acidic and neutral sphingomyelinases or ceramide synthases, is a common intermediate of many apoptotic pathways. Metabolism of ceramide involves several enzymes, including glucosylceramide synthase and GD3 synthase, and results in the formation of gangliosides (GM3, GD3, and GT3), which(More)
Reticulons are a family of highly conserved proteins, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and involved in different cellular functions, such as intracellular membrane trafficking, apoptosis and nuclear envelope formation. The reticulon protein family consists of four members, but their specific functions are presently poorly understood. RTN-1C(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cellular site of polypeptide folding and modification. When these processes are hampered, an unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. If the damage is too broad, the mammalian UPR launches the apoptotic program. As a consequence, mobilization of ER calcium stores sensitizes mitochondria to direct proapoptotic(More)
The synthetic retinoid fenretinide [N-(4 hydroxyphenyl)retinamide] induces apoptosis of cancer cells and acts synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs, thus providing opportunities for novel approaches to cancer therapy. The upstream signaling events induced by fenretinide include an increase in intracellular levels of ceramide, which is subsequently(More)
Cells may use multiple pathways to commit suicide. In certain contexts, dying cells generate large amounts of autophagic vacuoles and clear large proportions of their cytoplasm, before they finally die, as exemplified by the treatment of human mammary carcinoma cells with the anti-estrogen tamoxifen (TAM, < or = 1 microM). Protein analysis during autophagic(More)
A major problem in assessing the role of calpains in apoptosis induction concerns the fact that calpain inhibitors can also impair the activity of the proteasome, also reported to be involved in apoptosis. Herein we showed that apoptosis induced by calphostin C in U937 human promonocytic leukemia cells was associated, at its onset, with enhanced protein(More)
Damage or stress in many organelles may trigger apoptosis by several not yet fully elucidated mechanisms. A cell death pathway is induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicited by the unfolded protein response and/or by aberrant Ca(2+) signalling. Reticulon-1C (RTN-1C) belongs to the reticulon family, neuroendocrine-specific proteins localized(More)
Some chemotherapeutic agents can elicit apoptotic cancer cell death, thereby activating an anticancer immune response that influences therapeutic outcome. We previously reported that anthracyclins are particularly efficient in inducing immunogenic cell death, correlating with the pre-apoptotic exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the plasma membrane surface of(More)
Doxorubicin (0.5 microgram/ml) induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and CHP-100 neuroepithelioma cells. The apoptotic response started to be evident approximately 15 h after drug administration and, as monitored over a 48-h period, was more pronounced in CHP-100 than in SH-SY5Y cells. In both systems, apoptosis was accompanied by(More)