Federica Borghi

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OBJECTIVES Microbial translocation (MT) through the gut accounts for immune activation and CD4+ loss in HIV and may influence HCV disease progression in HIV/HCV co-infection. We asked whether increased MT and immune activation may hamper anti-HCV response in HIV/HCV patients. METHODS 98 HIV/HCV patients who received pegylated-alpha-interferon(More)
The verification of the uncertain presence of muscle spindles in the external anal sphincter is important in the comprehension of the pathophysiology of continence. The authors failed to demonstrate these proprioceptive structures in 10 human sphincters examined with different histological techniques, whereas they found some typical muscle spindles in the(More)
A study of the anatomy of the anal striated musculature is performed on 34 adult specimens to reconsider some debated morphologic aspects. The original "eight-shaped" arrangement of the fibers of the pubococcygeus is pointed out, suggesting a definite role of the muscle as a superior part of the continence muscular complex; the intermediate part seems to be(More)
Continence depends not only on correct muscular function but also on the integrity of the suspensory structures of the anal canal, the latter being the subject of this study performed on embryological and adult specimens. The role of the perineal body as an insertion tendon common to all the striated muscles (pubo-coc-cygeus, superficial striated sphincter)(More)
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