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Changes in metabolic status gate reproductive activity by still incompletely deciphered mechanisms. Many neuropeptides have been shown to be involved in restraining hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) release under conditions of negative energy balance. Broadly, on the basis of their effect on feeding, these can be grouped as orexigenic and(More)
Amplification of the neurosecretory activity of the GnRH system is the defining neuroendocrine event for sexual maturation. The physiological mechanisms that drive GnRH secretion at puberty have been difficult to identify but the discovery in 2003 that the G protein coupled receptor KISS1R is a key regulator of pubertal development in mice and men has(More)
In our previous work, we demonstrated that the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) prevented the impairment in vasopressin secretion and increased survival rate in septic rats. Additionally, we saw a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) levels in cerebroventricular spinal fluid (CSF), suggesting that the(More)
Recently, kisspeptin (KP) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), two counteracting neuropeptides, have been acknowledged as significant regulators of reproductive function. KP stimulates reproduction while GnIH inhibits it. These two neuropeptides seem to be pivotal for the modulation of reproductive activity in response to internal and external cues.(More)
E-government and E-Commerce facilities help citizens to benefit from governmental services and shopping facilities while being at home. Website design is an essential part of e-government and e-commerce infrastructures. Usability aspects can enhance the user experience and lack of usability can de-motivate users and eventually they may leave that portal. In(More)
Kisspeptin-Kiss1R signalling in mammals has been implicated as an integral part of the reproductive cascade. Kisspeptinergic neurons upstream of GnRH neurons are involved in the activation of the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator during pubertal onset. Thus, the major research focus has been on the central effects of kisspeptin. The demonstration of the(More)
A large body of data suggests that body weight influences puberty onset and adult reproduction. However, the underlying mechanism of how body weight influences puberty onset and fertility is not completely understood. The hypothalamic neuronal circuit regulating reproduction is restrained by inhibitory signals during childhood. At the time of puberty, these(More)
The neurobiological mechanism of puberty onset in primates is currently only partly understood. A recent study reported an important role of Dmx-like 2 (DMXL2), a gene encoding rabconnectin-3α vesicular protein, in human subjects with mental retardation and neuroendocrine impairment of reproduction. To further characterize the potential role of DMXL2 in the(More)
The physiology of reproduction is very complex and is regulated by multiple factors, including a number of hypothalamic neuropeptides. In last few decades, various neuropeptides have been discovered to be involved in stimulation or inhibition of reproduction. In 2000, Tsutsui and colleagues uncovered gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a neuropeptide(More)