Fay K. Kessler

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One of the most important mechanisms involved in host defense against xenobiotic chemicals and endogenous toxins is the glucuronidation catalysed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGT). The role of genetic factors in determining variable rates of glucuronidation is not well understood, but phenotypic evidence in support of such variation has been(More)
Mycophenolic acid (MPA; 1,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-5-isobenzylfuranyl)-4-methyl-4-hexenoate), the active metabolite of the immunosuppressant prodrug, mycophenolate mofetil, undergoes glucuronidation to its 7-O-glucuronide as a primary route of metabolism. Because differences in glucuronidation may influence the efficacy and/or toxicity(More)
UGT enzymes catalyze the formation of glucuronic acid conjugates. Specifically selected representative stable isotope (C(13), N(15)) labeled peptide internal standards of each enzyme were employed to quantify UGTs 1A1 and 1A6 by LC-MS/MS using isotope dilution techniques. Inter day variability (n=5) for human liver microsomes was <or= 8.0 % for UGT1A1 and(More)
In Crigler-Najjar type II patients and, recently, in Crigler-Najjar type I patients treated with human hepatocyte cell therapy, phenobarbital has been used for reducing the serum bilirubin load. Its effect is attributed to induction of the enzyme required for hepatic bilirubin elimination, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT1A1. This study investigated the(More)
Gunn rats glucuronidate acetaminophen (APAP) at reduced rates and show increased susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. This defect is presumed to involve UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6, which is nonfunctional in Gunn rats, but it is currently unclear whether other 1A family members are also involved. In humans, two 1A isoforms are known to(More)
The utility of oltipraz as a cancer chemopreventive agent is thought to depend on the induction of enzymes involved in phase 2 xenobiotic detoxification. Although studies of some enzymes induced by oltipraz implicate a novel transcriptional activating pathway involving Nrf2 and antioxidant-response elements (AREs), the mechanism of phenol UGT induction has(More)
We report here that rats possess a hitherto unrecognized xenobiotic-inducible hepatic 7,8-dihydro-7,8-diol-benzo[a]pyrene (BPD) UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity. BPD UGT activity is induced in female F344 rat liver by treatment with the selective Phase 2 conjugation enzyme inducer oltipraz [4-methyl-5-(2-pyrazinyl)-1,2-dithiole-3-thione at 75-450(More)
The mutagenic potential of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) and some related compounds were studied using the L5178Y mouse (TK+/-) lymphoma assay. The established mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) were highly active in this assay, whereas PVP-I, polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP), potassium iodide (KI), and iodine (I2) were inactive.(More)
Previous work has shown that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oltipraz both induce an unidentified rat liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase with activity toward benzo(a)pyrene-7, 8-diol, the proximate carcinogenic form of benzo(a)pyrene. Here we report the isolation of a benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol transferase-encoding cDNA, LC14, from an adult rat(More)
This article is an updated report of a symposium held at the June 2000 annual meeting of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics in Boston. The symposium was sponsored by the ASPET Divisions for Drug Metabolism and Molecular Pharmacology. The report covers research from the authors' laboratories on the structure and regulation of(More)