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We studied the extent to which automatic postural actions in standing human subjects are organized by a limited repertoire of central motor programs. Subjects stood on support surfaces of various lengths, which forced them to adopt different postural movement strategies to compensate for the same external perturbations. We assessed whether a continuum or a(More)
Postural control is no longer considered simply a summation of static reflexes but, rather, a complex skill based on the interaction of dynamic sensorimotor processes. The two main functional goals of postural behaviour are postural orientation and postural equilibrium. Postural orientation involves the active alignment of the trunk and head with respect to(More)
Freezing of gait (FoG) is a unique and disabling clinical phenomenon characterised by brief episodes of inability to step or by extremely short steps that typically occur on initiating gait or on turning while walking. Patients with FoG, which is a feature of parkinsonian syndromes, show variability in gait metrics between FoG episodes and a substantial(More)
1. The effect of central set on automatic postural responses was studied in humans exposed to horizontal support-surface perturbations causing forward sway. Central set was varied by providing subjects with prior experience of postural stimulus velocities or amplitudes under 1) serial and random conditions, 2) expected and unexpected conditions, and 3)(More)
This study examines the roles of somatosensory and vestibular information in the coordination of postural responses. The role of somatosensory information was examined by comparing postural responses of healthy control subjects prior to and following somatosensory loss due to hypoxic anesthesia of the feet and ankles. The role of vestibular information was(More)
Emergence of postural patterns as a function of vision and translation frequency. We examined the frequency characteristics of human postural coordination and the role of visual information in this coordination. Eight healthy adults maintained balance in stance during sinusoidal support surface translations (12 cm peak to peak) in the anterior-posterior(More)
The concept of a generalized aging effect on a generalized balance mechanism is discussed, and an alternative, multicomponent approach to understanding the heterogeneity of postural dyscontrol in the elderly is presented. Neural sensorimotor components of normal postural control mechanisms are identified and discussed. The effects of Parkinson's disease,(More)
When standing quietly, human upright stance is typically approximated as a single segment inverted pendulum. In contrast, investigations which perturb upright stance with support surface translations or visual driving stimuli have shown that the body behaves like a two-segment pendulum, displaying both in-phase and anti-phase patterns between the upper and(More)
To characterize muscle synergy organization underlying multidirectional control of stance posture, electromyographic activity was recorded from 11 lower limb and trunk muscles of 7 healthy subjects while they were subjected to horizontal surface translations in 12 different, randomly presented directions. The latency and amplitude of muscle responses were(More)
1. The role of sensory information in shaping muscle activation patterns to postural perturbations in humans was investigated by varying velocity, amplitude, or duration of the perturbing stimulus. Ten normal subjects were exposed to 120 backward translations of the support surface under conditions of varying velocities (10-35 cm/s, constant amplitude),(More)