Learn More
BACKGROUND The morbidity of typhoid fever is highest in Asia with 93% of global episodes occurring in this region. Southeast Asia has an estimated incidence of 110 cases/100,000 population, which is the third highest incidence rate for any region. Pakistan falls into this region. There is also a considerable seasonal variation of typhoid fever, carrying(More)
BACKGROUND There is little literature available on dispensing patterns and unsupervised sale of medicines from pharmacies in developing countries. OBJECTIVE This study obtained background information on pharmacies, assessed the level of training, knowledge and dispensing patterns of pharmacy attendants in Karachi. METHODOLOGY This is a descriptive cross(More)
BACKGROUND As a response to a changing operating environment, healthcare administrators are implementing modern management tools in their organizations. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is considered a viable tool in high-income countries to improve hospital performance. The BSC has not been applied to hospital settings in low-income countries nor has the(More)
SETTING In Pakistan approximately 5.7 million people suffer from tuberculosis, with 260 000 new cases occurring every year. This study was conducted in an outpatient hospital setting in Karachi. OBJECTIVE To explore the level of awareness about tuberculosis amongst patients and their families, and recommend strategies for increasing understanding of the(More)
BACKGROUND In 1988, WHO estimated around 787,000 newborns deaths due to neonatal tetanus. Despite few success stories majority of the Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are still struggling to reduce neonatal mortality due to neonatal tetanus. We conducted a systematic review to understand the interventions that have had a substantial effect on(More)
The health care system in Pakistan has been confronted with problems of inequity, scarcity of resources, inefficient and untrained human resources, gender insensitivity and structural mismanagement. With the precarious health status of the people and poor indicators of health in the region, health care reforms were finally launched by the government in(More)
Despite world-wide promotion of breastfeeding, there is a declining trend in breastfeeding practice in many developed as well as developing countries. In these countries, health planners are faced with the difficult task of re-educating women on the value of breastfeeding. In this context, it is useful to review the role of breastfeeding in combating(More)
BACKGROUND Community-based information on maternal mental health in developing countries is meager and nearly non-existent in Pakistan. OBJECTIVE To determine the proportion of probable cases of women with mental disorders and examine the associated conditions and risk factors which contribute to maternal mental ill-health. METHODS With convenient(More)
Sensitizing health providers to customers' needs and women's health remains a challenge to the Pakistani health system. The Health Workers for Change methodology has been demonstrated to improve provider-client relationships in certain African and Latin American countries. This paper describes the experience of using Health Workers for Change participatory(More)
There is no adequate profile of domestic violence in Pakistan although this issue is frequently highlighted by the media. This case study used qualitative and quantitative methods to explore the nature and forms of domestic violence, circumstances, impact and coping mechanisms amongst selected women victims in Karachi. Violence was a continuum: all the(More)