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PURPOSE The aversive nature of regenerative milieu is the main problem related to the failure of neuronal restoration in the injured spinal cord which however might be addressed with an adequate repair intervention. We evaluated whether glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) may increase the ability of sciatic nerve graft, placed in a gap(More)
PURPOSE Failure of severed adult central nervous system (CNS) axons to regenerate could be attributed with a reduced intrinsic growing capacity. Severe spinal cord injury is frequently associated with a permanent loss of function because the surviving neurons are impaired to regrow their fibers and to reestablish functional contacts. Peripheral nerves are(More)
The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus is a prominent nucleus in the thalamus, positioned lateral to the midline nuclei and medial to the intralaminar thalamic complex in the dorsal thalamus. Several studies identify the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus as a key structure in learning and memory, as well as in emotional mechanisms and alertness due to reciprocal(More)
PURPOSE Peripheral nerve trauma results in functional loss in the innervated organ, and recovery without surgical intervention is rare. Many surgical techniques can be used for repair in experimental models. The authors investigated the source and delivery method of stem cells in experimental outcomes, seeking to clarify whether stem cells must be(More)
It is widely known that the catecholamine group is formed by dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline. Its synthesis is regulated by the enzyme called tyrosine hydroxylase. 3-hydroxytyramine/dopamine (DA) is a precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline synthesis and acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The three main nuclei, being the(More)
A number of evidences show the influence of the growth of injured nerve fibers in peripheral nervous system as well as potential implant stem cells (SCs). The SCs implementation in the clinical field is promising and the understanding of proliferation and differentiation is essential. This study aimed to evaluate the plasticity of mesenchymal SCs from bone(More)
The 3-hydroxytyramine/dopamine is a monoamine of the catecholamine group and it is a precursor of the noradrenaline and adrenaline synthesis, in which the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase acts as a rate-limiting enzyme. The dopaminergic nuclei retrorubral field (A8 group), substantia nigra pars compacta (A9 group) and ventral tegmental area (A10 group) are(More)
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is characterized by involuntary movements of the lower portion of the face being related to typical antipsychotic therapy. TD is associated with the oxidative imbalance in the basal ganglia. Lipoic acid (LA) and omega-3 (ω-3) are antioxidants acting as enzyme cofactors, regenerating antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to(More)
Neurotrophic factors and peripheral nerves are known to be good substrates for bridging CNS trauma. The involvement of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) activation in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was examined following spinal cord injury in the rat. We evaluated whether FGF-2 increases the ability of a sciatic nerve graft to enhance neuronal plasticity,(More)