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BACKGROUND The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy is designed to address major causes of child mortality at the levels of community, health facility, and health system. We assessed the effectiveness of facility-based IMCI in rural Tanzania. METHODS We compared two districts with facility-based IMCI and two neighbouring comparison(More)
BACKGROUND Survey data are traditionally collected using pen-and-paper, with double data entry, comparison of entries and reconciliation of discrepancies before data cleaning can commence. We used Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) for data entry at the point of collection, to save time and enhance the quality of data in a survey of over 21,000 scattered(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe geographical patterns of implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in three countries and to assess whether the strategy was implemented in areas with the most pressing child health needs. METHODS We conducted interviews with key informants at the national and district levels in Brazil, Peru and(More)
BACKGROUND With a view to developing health systems strategies to improve reach to high-risk groups, we present information on health and survival from household and health facility perspectives in five districts of southern Tanzania. METHODS We documented availability of health workers, vaccines, drugs, supplies and services essential for child health(More)
BACKGROUND Recent years have seen an unprecedented increase in funds for procurement of health commodities in developing countries. A major challenge now is the efficient delivery of commodities and services to improve population health. With this in mind, we documented staffing levels and productivity in peripheral health facilities in southern Tanzania.(More)
Appropriate consideration of contextual factors is essential for ensuring internal and external validity of randomized and non-randomized evaluations. Contextual factors may confound the association between delivery of the intervention and its potential health impact. They may also modify the effect of the intervention or programme, thus affecting the(More)
BACKGROUND The poor maintenance of equipment and inadequate supplies of drugs and other items contribute to the low quality of maternity services often found in rural settings in low- and middle-income countries, and raise the risk of adverse patient outcomes through delaying care provision. We aim to describe staff experiences of providing maternal and(More)
Despite recent improvements in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa, neonatal mortality rates remain largely unchanged. This study aimed to determine the frequency of delivery and newborn-care practices in southern Tanzania, where neonatal mortality is higher than the national average. All households in five districts of Southern Tanzania were approached to(More)
OBJECTIVE The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy is designed to address the five leading causes of childhood mortality, which together account for 70% of the 10 million deaths occurring among children worldwide annually. Although IMCI is associated with improved quality of care, which is a key determinant of better health outcomes,(More)
BACKGROUND Tanzania has been a pioneer in establishing community-level services, yet challenges remain in sustaining these systems and ensuring adequate human resource strategies. In particular, the added value of a cadre of professional community health workers is under debate. While Tanzania has the highest density of primary health care facilities in(More)