Learn More
BACKGROUND The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy is designed to address major causes of child mortality at the levels of community, health facility, and health system. We assessed the effectiveness of facility-based IMCI in rural Tanzania. METHODS We compared two districts with facility-based IMCI and two neighbouring comparison(More)
BACKGROUND Survey data are traditionally collected using pen-and-paper, with double data entry, comparison of entries and reconciliation of discrepancies before data cleaning can commence. We used Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) for data entry at the point of collection, to save time and enhance the quality of data in a survey of over 21,000 scattered(More)
BACKGROUND With a view to developing health systems strategies to improve reach to high-risk groups, we present information on health and survival from household and health facility perspectives in five districts of southern Tanzania. METHODS We documented availability of health workers, vaccines, drugs, supplies and services essential for child health(More)
BACKGROUND Access to skilled obstetric delivery and emergency care is deemed crucial for reducing maternal mortality. We assessed pregnancy-related mortality by distance to health facilities and by cause of death in a disadvantaged rural area of southern Tanzania. METHODS We did a secondary analysis of cross-sectional georeferenced census data collected(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) relative to routine care on the quality and efficiency of providing care for sick children in first-level health facilities in Tanzania, and to disseminate the results for use in health sector decision-making. DESIGN Non-randomized controlled trial to compare child health(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe geographical patterns of implementation of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in three countries and to assess whether the strategy was implemented in areas with the most pressing child health needs. METHODS We conducted interviews with key informants at the national and district levels in Brazil, Peru and(More)
Appropriate consideration of contextual factors is essential for ensuring internal and external validity of randomized and non-randomized evaluations. Contextual factors may confound the association between delivery of the intervention and its potential health impact. They may also modify the effect of the intervention or programme, thus affecting the(More)
Clinical observation, systematic research and popular anecdote indicate that, when confronted by death, people change the criteria by which they evaluate their lives. Questionnaires used routinely to assess quality of life in people with poor-prognosis cancer tend to be symptom-based and do not assess factors which become important when confronted by fatal(More)
Despite recent improvements in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa, neonatal mortality rates remain largely unchanged. This study aimed to determine the frequency of delivery and newborn-care practices in southern Tanzania, where neonatal mortality is higher than the national average. All households in five districts of Southern Tanzania were approached to(More)
BACKGROUND We studied coverage and timeliness of vaccination and risk factors for low and delayed vaccine uptake in children aged <2 years in rural Tanzania. METHODS We used data from a cluster survey conducted in 2004, which included 1403 children. Risk factors were analysed by log-binomial regression adjusted for the clustering. The analysis was(More)