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The role of the adaptive immune response in controlling the growth and recurrence of human tumors has been controversial. We characterized the tumor-infiltrating immune cells in large cohorts of human colorectal cancers by gene expression profiling and in situ immunohistochemical staining. Collectively, the immunological data (the type, density, and(More)
CARMAweb (Comprehensive R-based Microarray Analysis web service) is a web application designed for the analysis of microarray data. CARMAweb performs data preprocessing (background correction, quality control and normalization), detection of differentially expressed genes, cluster analysis, dimension reduction and visualization, classification, and Gene(More)
While generation of high-throughput expression data is becoming routine, the fast, easy, and systematic presentation and analysis of these data in a biological context is still an obstacle. To address this need, we have developed PathwayExplorer, which maps expression profiles of genes or proteins simultaneously onto major, currently available regulatory,(More)
BACKGROUND Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts provide potential for the development of novel treatment strategies, such as improved healing of large bone defects. However, their low frequency in bone marrow necessitate ex vivo expansion for further clinical application. In this study we asked if MSC are(More)
BACKGROUND Reconstructing regulatory networks from gene expression profiles is a challenging problem of functional genomics. In microarray studies the number of samples is often very limited compared to the number of genes, thus the use of discrete data may help reducing the probability of finding random associations between genes. RESULTS A quantization(More)
BACKGROUND A reciprocal relationship between bone and fat development in osteoporosis is clinically well established. Some of the key molecular regulators involved in this tissue replacement process have been identified. The detailed mechanisms governing the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) - the key cells involved - are however only now(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients has been described for various solid tumors and their clinical relevance has been shown. CTC detection based on the analysis of epithelial antigens might be hampered by the genetic heterogeneity of the primary tumor and loss of epithelial antigens. Therefore,(More)
Despite its enormous promise to further our understanding of cellular processes involved in the regulation of gene expression, microarray technology generates data for which statistical pre-processing has become a necessity before any interpretation of data can begin. The process by which we distinguish (and remove) non-biological variation from biological(More)
Cancer progression is a complex process involving host-tumor interactions by multiple molecular and cellular factors of the tumor microenvironment. Tumor cells that challenge immune activity may be vulnerable to immune destruction. To address this question we have directed major efforts towards data integration and developed and installed a database for(More)
Microarrays are a powerful tool in functional genomics, what allow a simultaneous analysis of the expression level of thousands of genes under different conditions. In order to compare measurements within and across arrays and to correct non-biological variation masking meaningful information, normalization is an essential task prior to any further(More)