Fatima Boukhallouk

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Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 has emerged as a survival protein in cells that are attacked by bacterial toxins forming small membrane pores. Activation of p38 by pore forming toxins (PFT) has been attributed to osmotic stress, but here we show that loss of K+ is likely to be the critical parameter. Several lines of evidence support this(More)
A defect in the pksP gene of Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with the loss of conidial pigmentation, a profound change of the conidial surface structure, and reduced virulence. The structural change of the conidial surface structure was not observed in similar A. nidulans wA mutants. Our data indicate that the pigment of both species is important for(More)
Production of a single cysteine substitution mutant, S177C, allowed Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) to be radioactively labeled with tritiated N-ethylmaleimide without affecting biological activity. It thus became possible to study the binding characteristics of HlyA as well as of toxin mutants in which one or both acylation sites were deleted. All toxins(More)
Many strains of Vibrio cholerae produce a cytolysin (VCC) that forms oligomeric transmembrane pores in animal cells. The molecule is secreted as a procytolysin (pro-VCC) of 79 kDa that must be cleaved at the N terminus to generate the active 65-kDa toxin. Processing can occur in solution, and previous studies have described the action of mature VCC thus(More)
High susceptibility of rabbit erythrocytes toward the pore-forming action of staphylococcal alpha-toxin correlates with the presence of saturable, high affinity binding sites. All efforts to identify a protein or glycolipid receptor have failed, and the fact that liposomes composed solely of phosphatidylcholine are efficiently permeabilized adds to the(More)
Staphylococcal alpha-toxin forms heptameric pores on eukaryotic cells. After binding to the cell membrane in its monomeric form, the toxin first assembles into a heptameric pre-pore. Subsequently, the pre-pore transforms into the final pore by membrane insertion of an amphipathic beta-barrel, which comprises the "central loop" domains of all heptamer(More)
The minor capsid protein L2 of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has multiple functions during the viral life cycle. Although L2 is required for effective invasion and morphogenesis, only a few cellular interaction partners are known so far. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified the transcription factor TBX2 as a novel interaction partner of HPV type(More)
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) induce warts and cancers on skin and mucosa. The HPV16 capsid is composed of the proteins L1 and L2. After cell entry and virus disassembly, the L2 protein accompanies the viral DNA to promyelocytic leukaemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) within the host nuclei enabling viral transcription and replication. Multiple components of(More)
Antiviral activity has been demonstrated for different tannin-rich plant extracts. Since tannins of different classes and molecular weights are often found together in plant extracts and may differ in their antiviral activity, we have compared the effect against influenza A virus (IAV) of Hamamelis virginiana L. bark extract, fractions enriched in tannins(More)
Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a pore-forming toxin that is secreted in precursor form (pro-VCC) and requires proteolytic cleavage in order to attain membrane-permeabilizing properties. Pro-VCC can be activated both in solution and membrane-bound state. Processing of membrane-bound pro-VCC can in turn be achieved through the action of both(More)