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Programmed cell death (apoptosis) occurs during normal development of the central nervous system. However, the mechanisms that determine which neurons will succumb to apoptosis are poorly understood. Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors for only a few hours during late fetal or early neonatal life triggered widespread apoptotic(More)
IGF-1 has been associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, although its role is not fully understood. Here we show that normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic transgenic mice overexpressing IGF-1 in the retina developed most alterations seen in human diabetic eye disease. A paracrine effect of IGF-1 in the retina initiated vascular alterations that(More)
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion. Insulin resistance initially causes compensatory islet hyperplasia that progresses to islet disorganization and altered vascularization, inflammation, and, finally, decreased functional β-cell mass and hyperglycemia. The precise mechanism(s) underlying β-cell failure(More)
During the expansion of fat mass in obesity, vascularization of adipose tissue is insufficient to maintain tissue normoxia. Local hypoxia develops and may result in altered adipokine expression, proinflammatory macrophage recruitment, and insulin resistance. We investigated whether an increase in adipose tissue angiogenesis could protect against(More)
IL-6 is released by the adipose tissue and increased circulating levels in obesity are associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. Short-term experiments suggest that increased IL-6 release by the skeletal muscle following exercise may improve insulin sensitivity. In order to examine the effect of chronically elevated IL-6 levels, we(More)
A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year(More)
Sequence variants in the first intron of FTO are strongly associated with human obesity and human carriers of the risk alleles show evidence for increased appetite and food intake. Mice globally lacking Fto display a complex phenotype characterised by both increased energy expenditure and increased food intake. The site of action of FTO on energy balance is(More)
Type 1 diabetic patients are diagnosed when beta-cell destruction is almost complete. Reversal of type 1 diabetes will require beta-cell regeneration from islet cell precursors and prevention of recurring autoimmunity. IGF-I expression in beta-cells of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated transgenic mice regenerates the endocrine pancreas by increasing beta-cell(More)
The purity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector preparations has important implications for both safety and efficacy of clinical gene transfer. Early-stage screening of candidates for AAV-based therapeutics ideally requires a purification method that is flexible and also provides vectors comparable in purity and potency to the prospective investigational(More)
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPSIIIA) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the sulfamidase gene. Accumulation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) inside the lysosomes is associated with severe neurodegeneration as well as peripheral organ pathological changes leading to death of affected individuals during adolescence. There is no cure for(More)