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BACKGROUND In late August 1999, an unusual cluster of cases of meningoencephalitis associated with muscle weakness was reported to the New York City Department of Health. The initial epidemiologic and environmental investigations suggested an arboviral cause. METHODS Active surveillance was implemented to identify patients hospitalized with viral(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to detect disease outbreaks early is important in order to minimize morbidity and mortality through timely implementation of disease prevention and control measures. Many national, state, and local health departments are launching disease surveillance systems with daily analyses of hospital emergency department visits, ambulance(More)
BACKGROUND In the summer of 1999, West Nile virus was recognised in the western hemisphere for the first time when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and meningitis in the metropolitan area of New York City, NY, USA. Intensive hospital-based surveillance identified 59 cases, including seven deaths in the region. We did a household-based(More)
BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in reduced AIDS incidence and mortality. Socially marginalized individuals with HIV infection, particularly injection drug users (IDUs), have received less ART and derived less benefit than others. Little is known about the therapeutic process necessary to promote acceptance of and adherence to ART among(More)
Syndromic surveillance refers to methods relying on detection of individual and population health indicators that are discernible before confirmed diagnoses are made. In particular, prior to the laboratory confirmation of an infectious disease, ill persons may exhibit behavioral patterns, symptoms, signs, or laboratory findings that can be tracked through a(More)
An early warning system for West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks could provide a basis for targeted public education and surveillance activities as well as more timely larval and adult mosquito control. We adapted the spatial scan statistic for prospective detection of infectious disease outbreaks, applied the results to data on dead birds reported from New York(More)
CONTEXT Ceftriaxone, an expanded-spectrum cephalosporin, is an antimicrobial agent commonly used to treat severe Salmonella infections, especially in children. Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infections have recently been reported in the United States, but the extent of the problem is unknown. OBJECTIVES To summarize national surveillance data for(More)
BACKGROUND After an increase in cigarette taxes and implementation of smoke-free workplace legislation, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, the New York State Department of Health, and the Roswell Park Cancer Institute undertook large-scale distribution of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We did a 6 month follow-up survey to(More)
In disease surveillance, there are often many different data sets or data groupings for which we wish to do surveillance. If each data set is analysed separately rather than combined, the statistical power to detect an outbreak that is present in all data sets may suffer due to low numbers in each. On the other hand, if the data sets are added by taking the(More)
INTRODUCTION Syndromic surveillance monitors trends in nonspecific health indicator data to detect disease outbreaks in a timely manner; however, only a limited percentage of persons with mild illness might exhibit behaviors that could be detected by syndromic surveillance. OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to 1) examine the demographic(More)