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TGR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates bile acid (BA) effects on energy balance, inflammation, digestion, and sensation. The mechanisms and spatiotemporal control of TGR5 signaling are poorly understood. We investigated TGR5 signaling and trafficking in transfected HEK293 cells and colonocytes (NCM460) that endogenously express TGR5. BAs(More)
Patients with cholestatic disease exhibit pruritus and analgesia, but the mechanisms underlying these symptoms are unknown. We report that bile acids, which are elevated in the circulation and tissues during cholestasis, cause itch and analgesia by activating the GPCR TGR5. TGR5 was detected in peptidergic neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia and spinal(More)
BACKGROUND The development of a hepatic surgery center within a US Department of Veterans Affairs hospital is dependent on proper training and institutional support, which can translate into low operative morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Patients who underwent hepatic procedures between 2003 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. A subset analysis(More)
Hepatic steatosis is generally thought to develop via peripheral mechanisms associated with obesity. We show that chronic central infusion of leptin suppresses hepatic lipogenic gene expression and reduces triglyceride content via stimulation of hepatic sympathetic activity. This leptin function is independent of feeding and body weight but requires(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Abnormal delivery of bile acids (BAs) to the colon as a result of disease or therapy causes constipation or diarrhea by unknown mechanisms. The G protein-coupled BA receptor TGR5 (or GPBAR1) is expressed by enteric neurons and endocrine cells, which regulate motility and secretion. METHODS We analyzed gastrointestinal and colon transit,(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) exerts its diverse effects on vasodilation, nociception, secretion, and motor function through a heterodimeric receptor comprising of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). Despite the importance of CLR·RAMP1 in human disease, little is known about its distribution in(More)
BACKGROUND Many hepatobiliary centres are increasingly utilizing thermocoagulative devices such as bipolar-radiofrequency ablation (B-RFA). Compared with monopolar-radiofrequency ablation (M-RFA), B-RFA does not require grounding pads, thereby avoiding dermal burn injuries, and does not position probes directly into the tumour but rather on the perimeter.(More)
The Mineta Transportation Institute (MTI) was established by Congress in 1991 as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Equity Act (ISTEA) and was reauthorized under the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st century (TEA-21). MTI then successfully The Institute receives oversight from an internationally respected Board of Trustees whose members(More)
BACKGROUND Both fistula risk score (FRS) and drain amylase in postoperative day 1 (POD1DA) have been promoted as tools to guide placement and removal of surgical drains following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). However, their individual utility has not been compared. METHODS A consecutive cohort of PD patients from 2013 to 2015 were identified from a(More)