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Chondrocytes in articular cartilage are regularly subjected to compression and recovery due to dynamic loading of the joint. Previous studies have investigated the elastic and viscoelastic properties of chondrocytes using micropipette aspiration techniques, but in order to calculate cell properties, these studies have generally assumed that cells are(More)
In articular cartilage, chondrocytes are surrounded by a pericellular matrix (PCM), which together with the chondrocyte have been termed the "chondron." While the precise function of the PCM is not know there has been considerable speculation that it plays a role in regulating the biomechanical environment of the chondrocyte. In this study, we measured the(More)
Atomic force microscopy has rapidly become a valuable tool for quantifying the biophysical properties of single cells. The interpretation of atomic force microscopy-based indentation tests, however, is highly dependent on the use of an appropriate theoretical model of the testing configuration. In this study, a novel, thin-layer viscoelastic model for(More)
The mechanical properties of articular cartilage serve as important measures of tissue function or degeneration, and are known to change significantly with osteoarthritis. Interest in small animal and mouse models of osteoarthritis has increased as studies reveal the importance of genetic background in determining predisposition to osteoarthritis. While(More)
A diverse array of environmental factors contributes to the overall control of stem cell activity. In particular, new data continue to mount on the influence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on stem cell fate through physical interactions with cells, such as the control of cell geometry, ECM geometry/topography at the nanoscale, ECM mechanical properties,(More)
Pools of human adipose-derived adult stem (hADAS) cells can exhibit multiple differentiated phenotypes under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. Because adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible, hADAS cells offer a promising source of cells for tissue engineering and other cell-based therapies. However, it is unclear whether individual hADAS(More)
Biomechanical factors play an important role in the health of diarthrodial joints. Altered joint loading - associated to obesity, malalignment, trauma or joint instability - is a critical risk factor for joint degeneration, whereas exercise and weight loss have generally been shown to promote beneficial effects for osteoarthritic joints. The mechanisms by(More)
The pericellular matrix (PCM) is a narrow tissue region surrounding chondrocytes in articular cartilage, which together with the enclosed cell(s) has been termed the "chondron." While the function of this region is not fully understood, it is hypothesized to have important biological and biomechanical functions. In this article, we review a number of(More)
OBJECTIVE Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel that can be gated by tonicity (osmolarity) and mechanical stimuli. Chondrocytes, the cells in cartilage, respond to their osmotic and mechanical environments; however, the molecular basis of this signal transduction is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to(More)
Mechanical loading of joints plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of articular cartilage. The mechanism(s) of chondrocyte mechanotransduction are not fully understood, but could provide important insights into new physical or pharmacologic therapies for joint diseases. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a(More)