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Photosensitive dyes or photo sensitizers (PS) in combination with visible light and oxygen produce reactive oxygen species that kill cells in the process known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Antimicrobial PDT employs PS that is selective for microbial cells and is a new treatment for infections. Most antimicrobial PS is based on tetrapyrrole or(More)
There has been a recent concern among oncological clinicians and pathologists of our region regarding the disproportionate increase in the number of patients presenting with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This prompted us to conduct a thorough, hospital-based epidemiological study in a major referral center of Pakistan. A total of 780 specimens were(More)
Tunneled pleural catheters (TPC) are often used for management of malignant pleural effusion. They have proven to be safe, effective, and are associated with low rates of complications. We describe the case of a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who inadvertently cut his TPC causing leakage of pleural fluid, requiring urgent removal. We review(More)
A bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a communication between the pleural space and the bronchial tree. BPFs are challenging to diagnose and are associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Sequential balloon occlusion is commonly used for localization of a BPF. We describe our experience with 4 cases of successful localization of the BPF by instillation of(More)
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