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OBJECTIVE To define epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a large population-based model. STUDY DESIGN All pediatric gastroenterologists providing care for Wisconsin children voluntarily identified all new cases of IBD during a 2-year period. Demographic and clinical data were sent to a(More)
Antibodies are thought to be the primary immune effectors in the defense against erythrocytic stage Plasmodium falciparum. Thus, malaria vaccines directed to blood stages of infection are evaluated based on their ability to induce antibodies with anti-parasite activity. Such antibodies may have different effector functions (e.g., inhibition of invasion or(More)
The development of an asexual blood stage vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria based on the major merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1) antigen is founded on the protective efficacy observed in preclinical studies and induction of invasion and growth inhibitory antibody responses. The 42 kDa C-terminus of MSP1 has been developed as the recombinant(More)
Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980-1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the(More)
Inclusion of affinity tags has greatly facilitated process development for protein antigens, primarily for their recovery from complex mixtures. Although generally viewed as supportive of product development, affinity tags may have unintended consequences on protein solubility, susceptibility to aggregation, and immunogenicity. Merozoite surface protein 1(More)
The immunogenicity of recombinant protein or anti-viral DNA vaccines can be significantly improved by the addition of tandem copies of the complement fragment C3d. We sought to determine if the efficacy of a circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-based DNA vaccine delivered to mouse skin by gene gun was improved by using this strategy. Instead, we found that C3d(More)
BACKGROUND Antibodies are the main effectors against malaria blood-stage parasites. Evaluation of functional activities in immune sera from Phase 2a/b vaccine trials may provide invaluable information in the search for immune correlates of protection. However, the presence of anti-malarial-drugs, improper collection/storage conditions or concomitant immune(More)
Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum is a promising malaria vaccine target. RTS,S, the most advanced malaria vaccine candidate consists of the central NANP repeat and carboxy-terminal region of CSP displayed on a hepatitis B virus-like particle (VLP). To build upon the success of RTS,S, we produced a near full-length Plasmodium falciparum(More)
AIMS Due to pralidoxime chloride's (2-PAM) positive charge, it's penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB) and reactivation of organophosphate (OP) inhibited central nervous system (CNS) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is poor. The results of CNS inhibited AChE are seizures. Pro-2-PAM (1-methyl-1,6-dihydropyridine-2-carbaldoxime), a pro-drug of 2-PAM,(More)
An abbreviation for Domain Name System, DNS is a system employed for naming computers and network services. This system is organized into a hierarchical scheme of domains. Naming service provided by DNS is used in TCP/IP networks, such as the Internet, to easily locate computers and services like mail exchanger servers, through user-friendly names. When a(More)