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Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent (or translucent) systems of oil, water, and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant with a droplet size usually in the range of 20-200 nm. Since their discovery, they have attained increasing significance both in basic research and in industry. Due to their distinct(More)
This study was performed to investigate whether or not amiloride, a sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) inhibitor, can protect against seizure development of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice.Kindling was induced by once every 2 days treatment with PTZ (25 mg kg(-1) i.p.) for 5 weeks. Challenge experiments were carried out after 15 or 30 days of(More)
Management of extraocular disease is mainly limited by the inability to provide long-term extraocular drug delivery without avoiding the systemic drug exposure and/or affecting the intraocular structures and poor availability of drugs, which may be overcome by prolonging the contact time with the ocular surface, for instance with bioadhesive polymers. In(More)
Xanthine oxidase (XO) generates reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) as a by-product while catalyzing their reaction. The present study implicates these ROM in the pathogenesis of liver necrosis produced in rats by the intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide (TAA; 400 mg/kg b.wt.). After 16 h of TAA administration, the activity of rat liver XO(More)
In the modern world, a number of therapeutic proteins such as vaccines, antigens, and hormones are being developed utilizing different sophisticated biotechnological techniques like recombinant DNA technology and protein purification. However, the major glitches in the optimal utilization of therapeutic proteins and peptides by the oral route are their(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to develop, characterize and evaluate (in vitro and in vivo) a novel colon-targeted bioadhesive microsphere (BAM) containing metronidazole (MTZ). METHODS BAMs are prepared using Assam Bora rice starch as a natural bioadhesive polymer by a double emulsion solvent evaporation method. RESULTS The prepared microspheres(More)
Lumefantrine (LMF) is an antimalarial drug that exhibits poor oral bioavailability, owing to its poor aqueous solubility. To improve its antimalarial activity, nanopowder formulation using DYNO MILL was prepared. Combination of HPMC E3 (4%, w/v) and Tween 80 (2.5%, w/v) as dispersing agents, favored the production of smaller LMF particles with mean size of(More)
The objective of our investigation was to design a thermodynamically stable and dilutable nanoemulsion formulation of Ramipril, with minimum surfactant concentration that could improve its solubility, stability and oral bioavailability. Formulations were taken from the o/w nanoemulsion region of phase diagrams, which were subjected to thermodynamic(More)
Sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs) in the brain play a key role in regulating neuronal pH and, hence, modulate bioelectric and seizure activity. In this study, we investigated the anticonvulsant effect of amiloride (a NHE inhibitor) on increasing current electroshock (ICES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. Further, the effect of(More)
Inhibition of sodium hydrogen exchangers (NHE) has been shown to diminish seizure activity in various in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy. In the present study, we examined the effect of amiloride, a sodium hydrogen exchanger inhibitor, against pentetrazole (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus (SE). The study was conducted in mice and status epilepticus was(More)