Farhad Afshar

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The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is a promising new target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in parkinsonian patients with gait disturbance and postural instability refractory to other treatment modalities. This region of the brain is unfamiliar territory to most functional neurosurgeons. This paper reviews the anatomy of the human PPN and describes novel,(More)
OBJECT The authors describe a computer-resident digital representation of a stereotactic atlas of the human brainstem, its semiautomated registration to sagittal fast low-angle shot three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data sets in 27 healthy volunteers and 24 neurosurgical patients, and an analysis of the subsequent transforms needed to(More)
The trigeminal nuclear complex and its spinal tract extend throughout the greater part of the brain-stem and at medullary levels form the target site for producing stereotactic lesions. This paper describes a method for three-dimensional drawings of this nuclear complex. A stereotactic atlas of the human brain-stem and cerebellar nuclei has formed the data(More)
The spatial configuration of the trigeminal nuclear complex has been determined using new computer techniques aided by color graphic display facilities. Precise, statistical computer-generated drawings are provided of the three-dimensional anatomy of the nuclear complex and spinal tract of the fifth cranial nerve, as well as adjacent structures. Techniques(More)
PURPOSE Pediatric Cushing's disease (CD) is rare and there are limited data on the long-term outcomes. We assessed CD recurrence, body composition, pituitary function and psychiatric comorbidity in a cohort of pediatric CD patients. METHODS Retrospective review of 21 CD patients, mean age at diagnosis 12.1 years (5.7-17.8), managed in our center between(More)
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