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Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death characterized by cytoplasmic condensation, plasma membrane blebbing and nuclear pycnosis, leading to nuclear DNA breakdown into multiples of ∼200 bp oligonucleosomal size fragments. The detection of apoptosis in cultured cells relies heavily on techniques involving the extraction of nuclear DNA and(More)
Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) disease is characterized by cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes and aberrant feedback regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. We provide evidence that the NPC1 protein has homology with the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family of prokaryotic permeases and may normally function as a transmembrane efflux pump. Studies(More)
Ribosomal proteins have the complex task of coordinating protein biosynthesis to maintain cell homeostasis and survival. Recent evidence suggests that a number of ribosomal proteins have secondary functions independent of their involvement in protein biosynthesis. A number of these proteins function as cell proliferation regulators and in some instances as(More)
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a severe cell lipidosis characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the endosomal/lysosomal system. Recently the primary disease-causing gene, NPC1, was identified, but few clues regarding its potential function(s) could be derived from its predicted amino acid sequence. Therefore, efforts were(More)
BACKGROUND INFORMATION Within the group of lysosomal storage diseases, NPC1 [NPC (Niemann-Pick type C) 1] disease is a lipidosis characterized by excessive accumulation of free cholesterol as well as gangliosides, glycosphingolipids and fatty acids in the late E/L (endosomal/lysosomal) system (Chen et al., 2005) due to a defect in late endosome lipid(More)
MLN64 is an integral membrane protein localized to the late endosome and plasma membrane that is thought to function as a mediator of cholesterol transport from endosomal membranes to the plasma membrane and/or mitochondria. The protein consists of two distinct domains: an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain that shares homology with the MENTHO protein and(More)
Cyclodextrins (CDs) have long been used to manipulate cellular cholesterol levels both in vitro and in vivo, but their direct effects at a cellular level are not well characterized. Recently, CDs have garnered much interest because of their ability to clear stored cholesterol from Niemann Pick Type C (NPC) cells and markedly prolong the life of NPC1 disease(More)
Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal lysosomal lipid storage disorder for which no effective therapy exists. A genome-wide, conditional synthetic lethality screen was performed using the yeast model of NP-C disease during anaerobiosis, an auxotrophic condition that requires yeast to utilize exogenous sterol. We identified 12 pathways and 13 genes(More)
NPC (Niemann-Pick type C) disease is a rare lipidosis characterized by the accumulation of LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-derived non-esterified cholesterol in the E/L (endosomal/lysosomal) system. The gene products that are responsible for the two NPC complementation groups are distinct and dissimilar, yet their cellular and disease phenotypes are virtually(More)
This paper is the written explanation for a demonstration of the REE Project's work to-date. The demonstration is intended to simulate an REE system that might exist on a Mars Rover, consisting of multiple COTS processors, a COTS network, a COTS node-level operating system, REE middleware, and an REE application. The specific application pecforms texture(More)