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X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is a potent antagonist of caspase apoptotic activity. XIAP also functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, targeting caspases for degradation. However, molecular pathways controlling XIAP activities remain unclear. Here, we report that nitric oxide (NO) reacts with XIAP by S-nitrosylating its RING domain (forming SNO-XIAP),(More)
S-Nitrosylation is a redox-based protein post-translational modification in response to nitric oxide signaling and is involved in a wide range of biological processes. Detection and quantification of protein S-nitrosylation have been challenging tasks due to instability and low abundance of the modification. Many studies have used mass spectrometry(More)
Accumulation of aberrant proteins to form Lewy bodies (LBs) is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ubiquitination-mediated degradation of aberrant, misfolded proteins is critical for maintaining normal cell function. Emerging evidence suggests that oxidative/nitrosative stress compromises the precisely-regulated network of ubiquitination in PD,(More)
Cerebral ischemia has been shown to induce activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-9, which is associated with impairment of the neurovasculature, resulting in blood–brain barrier breakdown, hemorrhage and neurodegeneration. We previously reported that the thiirane inhibitor SB-3CT, which is selective for gelatinases (MMP-2 and −9),(More)
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification and overexpression are associated with poor prognosis and resistance to cytotoxic drugs in patients with breast cancer. Increases in the number of HER2 gene copies have been shown to be associated with chromosome 17 polysomy. The use of whole, intact nuclei for fluorescence in situ hybridization(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule regulating numerous cellular functions in development and disease. In the brain, neuronal injury or neuroinflammation can lead to microglial activation, which induces NO production. NO can react with critical cysteine thiols of target proteins forming S-nitroso-proteins. This modification, known as S-nitrosylation,(More)
Excessive activation of gelatinases (MMP-2/-9) is a key cause of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. A single-dimension zymography has been widely used to determine gelatinase expression and activity, but this method is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity could be modified at(More)