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Ferritin is a symmetric, 24-subunit iron-storage complex assembled of H and L chains. It is found in bacteria, plants, and animals and in two classes of mutations in the human L-chain gene, resulting in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome or in neuroferritinopathy. Here, we examined systemic and cellular ferritin regulation and trafficking in the(More)
Menin is a tumor suppressor required to prevent multiple endocrine neoplasia in humans. Mammalian menin protein is associated with chromatin modifying complexes and has been shown to bind a number of nuclear proteins, including the transcription factor JunD. Menin shows bidirectional effects acting positively on c-Jun and negatively on JunD. We have(More)
5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the(More)
Rhodnius prolixus not only has served as a model organism for the study of insect physiology, but also is a major vector of Chagas disease, an illness that affects approximately seven million people worldwide. We sequenced the genome of R. prolixus, generated assembled sequences covering 95% of the genome (∼ 702 Mb), including 15,456 putative protein-coding(More)
In mammalian cells, iron homeostasis is largely regulated by post-transcriptional control of gene expression through the binding of iron-regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) to iron-responsive elements (IREs) contained in the untranslated regions of target mRNAs. IRP2 is the dominant iron sensor in mammalian cells under normoxia, but IRP1 is the more ancient(More)
Mutations in single Drosophila melanogaster genes can alter total body metal accumulation. We therefore asked whether evolutionary constraints maintain biologically abundant metal ions (iron, copper, manganese and zinc) to similar concentrations in different species of Drosophilidae, or whether metal homeostasis is a highly adaptable trait as shown(More)
Defense against oxidative stress in mammals includes the regeneration of the major thiol reductants glutathione and thioredoxin by glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), respectively. In contrast, Drosophila, and possibly insects in general, lacks glutathione reductase and must rely solely on the TrxR system. The mammalian TrxRs described(More)
Mitochondrial function depends on iron-containing enzymes and proteins, whose maturation requires available iron for biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters and heme. Little is known about how mitochondrial iron homeostasis is maintained, although the recent discovery of a mitochondrial ferritin in mammals and plants has uncovered a potential key player in the(More)
Iron and oxygen are essential but potentially toxic constituents of most organisms, and their transport is meticulously regulated both at the cellular and systemic levels. Compartmentalization may be a homeostatic mechanism for isolating these biological reactants in cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we have undertaken a genetic analysis of the(More)
Molecular oxygen is key to aerobic life but is also converted into cytotoxic byproducts referred to as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intracellular defense systems that protect cells from ROS-induced damage include glutathione reductase (GR), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), superoxide dismutase (Sod), and catalase (Cat). Sod and Cat constitute an evolutionary(More)