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Polar bears (PBs) are superbly adapted to the extreme Arctic environment and have become emblematic of the threat to biodiversity from global climate change. Their divergence from the lower-latitude brown bear provides a textbook example of rapid evolution of distinct phenotypes. However, limited mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence conflicts in the(More)
The genetic structure of the indigenous hunter-gatherer peoples of southern Africa, the oldest known lineage of modern human, is important for understanding human diversity. Studies based on mitochondrial and small sets of nuclear markers have shown that these hunter-gatherers, known as Khoisan, San, or Bushmen, are genetically divergent from other humans.(More)
The human gut microbiota is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes, but little is known about their diversity and richness within the gut. Here we analyse the antibiotic resistance genes of gut microbiota from 162 individuals. We identify a total of 1,093 antibiotic resistance genes and find that Chinese individuals harbour the highest number and(More)
Recent studies reveal that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of abundant, stable and ubiquitous noncoding RNA molecules in animals. Comprehensive detection of circRNAs from high-throughput transcriptome data is an initial and crucial step to study their biogenesis and function. Here, we present a novel chiastic clipping signal-based algorithm,(More)
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened with extinction because of a contagious cancer known as Devil Facial Tumor Disease. The inability to mount an immune response and to reject these tumors might be caused by a lack of genetic diversity within a dwindling population. Here we report a whole-genome analysis of two animals originating from(More)
Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationships between bacteria and human health, little is known about the species and function of the microbial community associated with oral diseases. In this study, we report the sequencing of 16 metagenomic samples collected from dental swabs and plaques representing four periodontal states. Insights into(More)
Seaweeds are essential for marine ecosystems and have immense economic value. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the draft genome of Saccharina japonica, one of the most economically important seaweeds. The 537-Mb assembled genomic sequence covered 98.5% of the estimated genome, and 18,733 protein-coding genes are predicted and annotated. Gene(More)
Gap closing is considered one of the most challenging and time-consuming tasks in bacterial genome sequencing projects, especially with the emergence of new sequencing technologies, such as pyrosequencing, which may result in large amounts of data without the benefit of large insert libraries for contig scaffolding. We propose a novel algorithm to align(More)
BACKGROUND There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial(More)
As the only remainder type of phycobiliproteins in Prochlorococcus, the actual role of phycoerythrin still remains unknown. Previous studies revealed that two different forms of phycoerythrin gene were found in two ecotypes of Prochlorococcus that are specifically adapted to either high light (HL) or low light (LL) conditions. Here we analyze patterns of(More)