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MRL/lpr mice develop a spontaneous systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune syndrome due to a dysfunctional Fas receptor, with contributions from other less well-defined genetic loci. The removal of B cells by genetic manipulation not only prevents autoantibody formation, but it also results in substantially reduced T cell activation and kidney(More)
In this paper, we study the Symmetric Regularized Long Wave (SRLW) equations by finite difference method. We design some numerical schemes which preserve the original conservative properties for the equations. The first scheme is two-level and nonlinear-implicit. Existence of its difference solutions are proved by Brouwer fixed point theorem. It is proved(More)
A new chaotic attractor is discovered for the Liu system. The homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits in the Liu system have been found by using the undetermined coefficient method. It analytically demonstrates that there exists one heteroclinic orbit of the Sil'nikov type that connects two nontrivial equilibrium points, and therefore Smale horseshoes and the(More)
Chronic graft-vs-host (cGVH) disease is induced in nonautoimmune mice by the transfer of alloreactive T cells that recognize foreign MHC class II. It closely resembles systemic lupus erythematosus, with antinuclear Abs and immune-mediated nephritis. Recent work has implicated TLRs, particularly TLR9, in the recognition of certain autoantigens in vitro and(More)
B cell autoreactivity is a component of chronic graft versus host (GVH) disease in humans and mice. Chronic GVH driven by I-A disparity results in loss of B cell tolerance in Ig/sHEL tolerant mice. In these mice, B cell anergy is characterized by down-modulation of sIgM mediated by intracellular retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or a block in(More)
The subharmonic bifurcations and chaotic motions are investigated both analytically and numerically for the traveling solutions of compound Kdv–Burgers equation with external and parametrical excitations. The critical curves separating the chaotic and non-chaotic regions are obtained. The chaotic feature on the system parameters are discussed in detail.(More)