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JNK has been suggested to be proapoptotic, antiapoptotic, or have no role in apoptosis depending on the cell type and stimulus used. The precise mechanism of JNK action, under conditions when it promotes cell survival, is not entirely clear. Here, we report that JNK is required for IL-3-mediated cell survival through phosphorylation and inactivation of the(More)
The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) regulates immune responses, inflammation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). TNF-alpha exerts its biological activities by activating multiple signaling pathways, including IkappaB kinase (IKK), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and caspases. IKK activation inhibits apoptosis(More)
Most anti-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies in myasthenia gravis are directed against an immunodominant epitope or epitopes [main immunogenic region (MIR)] on the AChR alpha-subunit. Thirty-two synthetic peptides, corresponding to the complete Torpedo alpha-subunit sequence and to a segment of human muscle alpha-subunit, were used to map(More)
IL-15 and NKG2D promote autoimmunity and celiac disease by arming cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to cause tissue destruction. However, the downstream signaling events underlying these functional properties remain unclear. Here, we identify cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) as a central molecule in NKG2D-mediated cytolysis in CTLs. Furthermore, we(More)
Educating dendritic cells (DC) to become tolerogenic DC, which promote regulatory IL-10 immune responses, represents an effective immune evasion strategy for pathogens. Yersinia pestis virulence factor LcrV is reported to induce IL-10 production via interaction with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. However, TLR2-/- mice are not protected against subcutaneous(More)
Eicosanoids are inflammatory mediators that play a key but incompletely understood role in linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here, we show that cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs) are capable of both producing and responding to cysteinyl leukotrienes (CystLTs), allowing for the killing of target cells in a T cell receptor-independent manner.(More)
In myasthenia gravis a highly conserved area of the nicotinic receptor (AcChR) dominates the autoantibody response (main immunogenic region, MIR), and it is formed by residues within the sequence segment 67-76 of the AcChR alpha-subunit. We have studied the binding of eight anti-MIR mAb to synthetic peptides containing the sequence segment 67-76 of the(More)
Previous studies by several laboratories have identified a narrow sequence region of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) alpha subunit, flanking the cysteinyl residues at positions 192 and 193, as containing major elements of, if not all, the binding site for cholinergic ligands. In the present study, we used a panel of synthetic peptides as(More)
Androgen and its receptor (AR) have been reported to have pro- or antiapoptotic functions. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. We report here that androgen and AR promote Bax-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. UV irradiation and ectopic expression of Bax induce apoptosis in AR-positive, but not AR-negative(More)
NK cells are large granular lymphocytes that form a critical component of the innate immune system, whose functions include the killing of cells expressing stress-induced molecules. It is increasingly accepted that despite being considered prototypical effector cells, NK cells require signals to reach their full cytotoxic potential. We previously showed(More)