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Arsenic (As) is an element that is nonessential for and toxic to plants. Arsenic contamination in the environment occurs in many regions, and, depending on environmental factors, its accumulation in food crops may pose a health risk to humans.Recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of As uptake and metabolism in plants is reviewed here. Arsenate is(More)
Arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide. Human arsenic intake from rice consumption can be substantial because rice is particularly efficient in assimilating arsenic from paddy soils, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. Here we report that two different types of transporters mediate transport of arsenite, the predominant form of(More)
The cellular compartmentation of elements was analysed in the Zn hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (=Cardaminopsis halleri) using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated tissues. Quantitative data were obtained using oxygen as an internal standard in the analyses of vacuoles, whereas a peak/background ratio(More)
Arsenic (As) is an environmental and food chain contaminant. Excessive accumulation of As, particularly inorganic arsenic (As(i)), in rice (Oryza sativa) poses a potential health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Rice is efficient at As accumulation owing to flooded paddy cultivation that leads to arsenite mobilization, and the inadvertent yet(More)
The mechanisms of arsenic (As) hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata, the first identified As hyperaccumulator, are unknown. We investigated the interactions of arsenate and phosphate on the uptake and distribution of As and phosphorus (P), and As speciation in P. vittata. In an 18-d hydroponic experiment with varying concentrations of arsenate and phosphate,(More)
Microbes detoxify arsenate by reduction and efflux of arsenite. Plants have a high capacity to reduce arsenate, but arsenic efflux has not been reported. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and rice (Oryza sativa) were grown hydroponically and supplied with 10 microm arsenate or arsenite, with or without phosphate, for 1-3 d. The chemical species of As in(More)
Arsenic (As) exposure from consumption of rice can be substantial, particularly for the population on a subsistence rice diet in South Asia. Paddy rice has a much enhanced As accumulation compared with other cereal crops, and practical measures are urgently needed to decrease As transfer from soil to grain. We investigated the dynamics of As speciation in(More)
Rice represents a major route of As exposure in populations that depend on a rice diet. Practical measures are needed to mitigate the problem of excessive As accumulation in paddy rice. Two potential mitigation methods, management of the water regime and Si fertilization, were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Growing rice aerobically during the(More)
A pot experiment was conducted to compare two strategies of phytoremediation: natural phytoextraction using the Zn and Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl versus chemically enhanced phytoextraction using maize (Zea mays L.) treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The study used an industrially contaminated soil and an(More)
Nickel uptake and cellular compartmentation were investigated in three Ni hyperaccumulators: Alyssum bertolonii (Desv), Alyssum lesbiacum (Candargy) and Thlaspi goesingense (Hálácsy). The three species showed similar hyperaccumulation of Ni, but T. goesingense was less tolerant to Ni than the two Alyssum species. An addition of 500 mg Ni kg(-1) to a(More)