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This dissertation examines the development of voiceless sibilant fricatives in children speaking English, Japanese or Mandarin Chinese. Both English and Japanese have a two-way distinction in sibilant fricatives Children's fricative productions have been traditionally described using adult's im-pressionistic transcriptions, which yield inconsistent orders(More)
This paper examines the acoustic characteristics of voiceless sibilant fricatives in English-and Japanese-speaking adults and the acquisition of contrasts involving these sounds in 2- and 3-year-old children. Both English and Japanese have a two-way contrast between an alveolar fricative (/s/), and a postalveolar fricative (/∫/ in English and /ɕ/ in(More)
Many of the important changes in evolution are regulatory in nature. Sequenced bacterial genomes point to flexibility in regulatory circuits but we do not know how regulation is remodeled in evolving bacteria. Here, we study the regulatory changes that emerge in populations evolving under controlled conditions during experimental evolution of Escherichia(More)
Speech productions of 40 English- and 40 Japanese-speaking children (aged 2-5) were examined and compared with the speech produced by 20 adult speakers (10 speakers per language). Participants were recorded while repeating words that began with "s" and "sh" sounds. Clear language-specific patterns in adults' speech were found, with English speakers(More)
In plants, RNA silencing plays a key role in antiviral defense. To counteract host defense, plant viruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) that target different effector molecules in the RNA silencing pathway. Evidence has shown that plants also encode endogenous suppressors of RNA silencing (ESRs) that function in proper regulation of RNA(More)
l-Serine is a nonessential amino acid, but plays a crucial role as a building block for cell growth. Currently, l-serine production is mainly dependent on enzymatic or cellular conversion. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Escherichia coli that can fermentatively produce l-serine from glucose. To accumulate l-serine, sdaA encoding the l-serine(More)
Three permeases, Mtr, TnaB, and AroP, are involved in the uptake of L-tryptophan in Escherichia coli. These permeases possess individual function for cell transportation and metabolism, and affect extracellular L-tryptophan accumulation. In this study, by knocking out three tryptophan permeases separately and simultaneously in L-tryptophan-producing strain(More)
HIGHLIGHTS Degree of lateralization for grasping predicts the maturity of the language production system in young, typically-developing children. In this report we provide compelling evidence for the relationship between right hand grasp-to-mouth (i.e., feeding) movements and language development. Specifically, we show that children (4-5 years old) who are(More)
Most acoustic studies of sibilant fricatives focus on languages that have a place distinction like the English distinction between coronal alveolar /s/ and coronal post-alveolar /Ѐ/. Much less attention has been paid to languages such as Japanese, where the contrast involves tongue posture as much as position. That is, the Japanese sibilant that contrasts(More)
Both English and Japanese have two voiceless sibilant fricatives, an anterior fricative /s/ contrasting with a more posterior fricative /∫/. When children acquire sibilant fricatives, English children typically substitute [s] for /∫/, whereas Japanese children typically substitute [∫] for /s/. This study examined English- and Japanese-speaking adults'(More)