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The young Xenopus tadpole is a very simple vertebrate that can swim. We have examined its behavior and neuroanatomy, and used immobilized tadpoles to study the initiation, production, coordination, and termination of the swimming motor pattern. We will outline the sensory pathways that control swimming behavior and the mainly spinal circuits that produce(More)
1. Recent studies have revealed that the excitatory synaptic input to spinal motoneurones during fictive swimming in Xenopus tadpoles has three main components: glutamatergic (Glu) from premotor excitatory interneurones, nicotinic cholinergic (nACh) from more rostral motoneurones, and electrotonic coupling from neighbouring motoneurones. During swimming,(More)
AIMS Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a novel gaseous mediator, has been recognized to protect neurons from overexcitation by enhancing the activity of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel. However, no direct evidence supports that the K-ATP channel contributes to the neuroprotective effect of H(2)S in neurodegeneration. Herein, wild-type(More)
The basis for longitudinal coordination among spinal neurons during locomotion is still poorly understood. We have now examined the functional projection distances for the longitudinal axons of reciprocal inhibitory 'commissural interneurons' in the spinal cord of young Xenopus tadpoles. In quiescent animals, glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials(More)
1. We examined the steady-state summation of postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in small, electrotonically compact neurones with short dendrites, using a one-compartment electrical equivalent model of the passive membrane with conductances to represent chemical synapses and electrotonic junctional connections to neighbouring neurones. 2. Our model shows that(More)
1. When swimming is initiated by tail stimulation in hatchling Xenopus tadpoles, the first trunk contraction is usually on the opposite side and directs the animal away from the stimulus. We have investigated how asymmetries in the skin sensory pathways mediate this response. 2. In alpha-bungarotoxin-immobilized tadpoles, intracellular recordings were made(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Emerging evidence indicates that stimulating adult neurogenesis provides novel strategies for central nervous system diseases. Iptakalim (Ipt), a novel ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channel opener, has been demonstrated to play multipotential neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. However, it remains unknown whether Ipt could(More)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an important pathogen hazardous to poultry industry, and the pathogenicity of NDV strains varies with different virulence. Peripheral blood serves as an important producer and carrier of viruses and cytokines in NDV infection. In order to explore the difference of cytokine expression in the peripheral blood between velogenic(More)
This paper investigates the proposal that the frequency of the swimming central pattern generator in young Xenopus tadpoles is partly determined by the population of glutamatergic premotor interneurons active on each cycle. During fictive swimming spinal neurons also receive cholinergic and electrotonic excitation from motoneurons. As frequency changes(More)
A reliable in vitro regeneration procedure for Populus tomentosa is a prerequisite for its trait improvement through genetic transformation. We established a systematic protocol for indirect regeneration of P. tomentosa using in vitro petioles of Chinese poplar cultivar ‘fasta-3’. A high frequency of callus induction (>97 %) was obtained from isolated(More)
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