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Neurons express multiple types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels. Two subtypes of neuronal L-type Ca2+ channels are encoded by CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 pore-forming subunits. Both CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 subunits contain class I PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1) domain-binding consensus at their C termini. In yeast two-hybrid screen of(More)
Upon recognition of bacterial flagellin, the plant receptor FLS2 heterodimerizes with brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) and activates plant defense responses. Because constitutive activation of defense responses is detrimental, plant resistance signaling pathways must be negatively controlled, although the mechanisms involved(More)
Salicylic acid (SA) is a defense hormone required for both local and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. Pathogen infections induce SA synthesis through up-regulating the expression of Isochorismate Synthase 1 (ICS1), which encodes a key enzyme in SA production. Here we report that both SAR Deficient 1 (SARD1) and CBP60g are key regulators for(More)
This paper presents a method for jointly designing the transmitter-receiver pair in a block-by-block communication system that employs (intrablock) decision feedback detection. We provide closed-form expressions for transmitter-receiver pairs that simultaneously minimize the arithmetic mean squared error (MSE) at the decision point (assuming perfect(More)
—The task of reconstructing an object from its projections via tomographic methods is a time-consuming process due to the vast complexity of the data. For this reason, manufacturers of equipment for medical computed tomography (CT) rely mostly on special application specified integrated circuits (ASICs) to obtain the fast reconstruction times required in(More)
The recent emergence of various types of flat-panel x-ray detectors and C-arm gantries now enables the construction of novel imaging platforms for a wide variety of clinical applications. Many of these applications require interactive 3D image generation, which cannot be satisfied with inexpensive PC-based solutions using the CPU. We present a solution(More)
Panax notoginseng (Sanqi) is a cardiovascular herb containing ginsenosides that are believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of Sanqi. The aim of this study was to evaluate rat exposure to ginsenosides after oral administration of Sanqi extract and to identify the key factors affecting their absorption and disposition. Ginsenosides were(More)
In both plants and animals, nucleotide-binding (NB) domain and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing proteins (NLR) function as sensors of pathogen-derived molecules and trigger immune responses. Although NLR resistance (R) proteins were first reported as plant immune receptors more than 15 years ago, how these proteins activate downstream defense responses(More)