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Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, is implicated in both normal neurotransmission and excitotoxicity. Numerous in vitro findings indicate that the ionotropic glutamate receptor, AMPAR, can rapidly traffic from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane, altering neuronal excitability. These receptor trafficking events are thought(More)
A formidable challenge in neural repair in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is the long distances that regenerating axons often need to travel in order to reconnect with their targets. Thus, a sustained capacity for axon regeneration is critical for achieving functional restoration. Although deletion of either phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN),(More)
Axon regeneration failure accounts for permanent functional deficits following CNS injury in adult mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In analyzing axon regeneration in different mutant mouse lines, we discovered that deletion of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes robust(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs that are thought to be involved in diverse biological processes by regulating gene expression. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in various species, and many more miRNAs remain to be detected. Generally, hundreds of mRNAs have been predicted to be potential targets of one miRNA, so it is a great(More)
Let G be an additive finite abelian group and S ⊂ G a subset. Let f(S) denote the number of nonzero group elements which can be expressed as a sum of a nonempty subset of S. It is proved that if |S| = 6 and there are no subsets of S with sum zero, then f(S) ≥ 19. Obviously, this lower bound is best possible, and thus this result gives a positive answer to(More)
A major reason for the devastating and permanent disabilities after spinal cord and other types of CNS injury is the failure of injured axons to regenerate and to re-build the functional circuits. Thus, a long-standing goal has been to develop strategies that could promote axon regeneration and restore functions. Recent studies revealed that simply removing(More)
Microglia are key mediators of the immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). They are closely related to macrophages and undergo dramatic morphological and functional changes after CNS trauma or excitotoxic lesions. Microglia can be directly stimulated by excitatory neurotransmitters and are known to express many neurotransmitter receptors. The(More)
The neural retina of mammals consists of light sensitive photoreceptors and connecting neural cells that receive and send visual signal to the brain. Dietary caloric restriction (CR) is the only experimental intervention that can reliably retard the age-related degeneration of the retina in a normal mammalian model. Here, we studied the effect of CR on(More)
The limited rewiring of the corticospinal tract (CST) only partially compensates the lost functions after stroke, brain trauma and spinal cord injury. Therefore it is important to develop new therapies to enhance the compensatory circuitry mediated by spared CST axons. Here by using a unilateral pyramidotomy model, we find that deletion of cortical(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the hypothesis that the favorable effects of gastrointestinal (GI) intervention on hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular (CV) disturbances are mediated by antagonizing overdrive of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). METHODS AND RESULTS Hypertensive patients with metabolic disturbances underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric(More)