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Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, is implicated in both normal neurotransmission and excitotoxicity. Numerous in vitro findings indicate that the ionotropic glutamate receptor, AMPAR, can rapidly traffic from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane, altering neuronal excitability. These receptor trafficking events are thought(More)
A formidable challenge in neural repair in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is the long distances that regenerating axons often need to travel in order to reconnect with their targets. Thus, a sustained capacity for axon regeneration is critical for achieving functional restoration. Although deletion of either phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN),(More)
Axon regeneration failure accounts for permanent functional deficits following CNS injury in adult mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In analyzing axon regeneration in different mutant mouse lines, we discovered that deletion of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes robust(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs that are thought to be involved in diverse biological processes by regulating gene expression. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in various species, and many more miRNAs remain to be detected. Generally, hundreds of mRNAs have been predicted to be potential targets of one miRNA, so it is a great(More)
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a major health problem, affecting 5% of the world population. Genetic factors are important in NIDDM, but the mechanisms leading to glucose intolerance are unknown. Genetic linkage has been investigated in multigeneration families to localize, and ultimately identify, the gene(s) predisposing to NIDDM. Here(More)
Let G be an additive finite abelian group and S ⊂ G a subset. Let f(S) denote the number of nonzero group elements which can be expressed as a sum of a nonempty subset of S. It is proved that if |S| = 6 and there are no subsets of S with sum zero, then f(S) ≥ 19. Obviously, this lower bound is best possible, and thus this result gives a positive answer to(More)
Quality assessment of Multiobjective Optimization Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA) has been a major concern in scientific field during the last few years. The entropy metric is introduced and highlighted in computing the diversity of MOEA. Existing performance metrics are briefly reviewed. The advantages of entropy approach over other diversity metrics are(More)
A major reason for the devastating and permanent disabilities after spinal cord and other types of CNS injury is the failure of injured axons to regenerate and to re-build the functional circuits. Thus, a long-standing goal has been to develop strategies that could promote axon regeneration and restore functions. Recent studies revealed that simply removing(More)
Cells adapt to temperature shifts by adjusting levels of lipid desaturation and membrane fluidity. This fundamental process occurs in nearly all forms of life, but its mechanism in eukaryotes is unknown. We discovered that the evolutionarily conserved Caenorhabditis elegans gene acdh-11 (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [ACDH]) facilitates heat adaptation by(More)
Microglia are key mediators of the immune response in the central nervous system (CNS). They are closely related to macrophages and undergo dramatic morphological and functional changes after CNS trauma or excitotoxic lesions. Microglia can be directly stimulated by excitatory neurotransmitters and are known to express many neurotransmitter receptors. The(More)