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Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, is implicated in both normal neurotransmission and excitotoxicity. Numerous in vitro findings indicate that the ionotropic glutamate receptor, AMPAR, can rapidly traffic from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane, altering neuronal excitability. These receptor trafficking events are thought(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs that are thought to be involved in diverse biological processes by regulating gene expression. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in various species, and many more miRNAs remain to be detected. Generally, hundreds of mRNAs have been predicted to be potential targets of one miRNA, so it is a great(More)
Axon regeneration failure accounts for permanent functional deficits following CNS injury in adult mammals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In analyzing axon regeneration in different mutant mouse lines, we discovered that deletion of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) promotes robust(More)
Let G be an additive finite abelian group and S ⊂ G a subset. Let f(S) denote the number of nonzero group elements which can be expressed as a sum of a nonempty subset of S. It is proved that if |S| = 6 and there are no subsets of S with sum zero, then f(S) ≥ 19. Obviously, this lower bound is best possible, and thus this result gives a positive answer to(More)
A formidable challenge in neural repair in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is the long distances that regenerating axons often need to travel in order to reconnect with their targets. Thus, a sustained capacity for axon regeneration is critical for achieving functional restoration. Although deletion of either phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN),(More)
A major reason for the devastating and permanent disabilities after spinal cord and other types of CNS injury is the failure of injured axons to regenerate and to re-build the functional circuits. Thus, a long-standing goal has been to develop strategies that could promote axon regeneration and restore functions. Recent studies revealed that simply removing(More)
For many pattern recognition methods, high recognition accuracy is obtained at very high expense of computational cost. In this paper, a new algorithm that reduces the computational cost for calculating discriminant function is proposed. This algorithm consists of two stages which are feature vector division and dimensional reduction. The processing of(More)
For many statistical pattern recognition methods, distributions of sample vectors are assumed to be normal, and the quadratic discriminant function derived from the probability density function of multivariate normal distribution is used for classification. However, the computational cost is O(n 2) for n-dimensional vectors. Moreover, if there are not(More)