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BACKGROUND Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are alternatively activated cells induced by interleukin-4 (IL-4)-releasing CD4+ T cells. TAMs promote breast cancer invasion and metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying these interactions between macrophages and tumor cells that lead to cancer metastasis remain elusive. Previous studies have found(More)
Recent years have witnessed great success of manifold learning methods in understanding the structure of multidimensional patterns. However, most of these methods operate in a batch mode and cannot be effectively applied when data are collected sequentially. In this paper, we propose a general incremental learning framework, capable of dealing with one or(More)
Pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is an enigmatic and aggressive tumor that has a worse prognosis and higher metastatic potential than its adenocarcinoma counterpart. Here we report that ASC tumors frequently harbor somatically acquired mutations in the UPF1 gene, which encodes the core component of the nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) pathway.(More)