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The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) in settings of immunodeficiency. Although disseminated, vaginal, and oral candidiasis are all caused by C. albicans species, host defense against C. albicans varies by anatomical location. T helper 1 (Th1) cells have long been implicated in defense against candidiasis,(More)
Interferon-gamma is key in limiting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here we show that vaccination triggered an accelerated interferon-gamma response by CD4(+) T cells in the lung during subsequent M. tuberculosis infection. Interleukin 23 (IL-23) was essential for the accelerated response, for early cessation of bacterial growth and for establishment(More)
IL-17A and its receptor are the founding members of a recently described cytokine family, with unique sequences and functions in the immune system and elsewhere. Consisting of six ligands (IL-17A-F) and five receptors (IL-17RA-IL-17RE) in mammals, these molecules have distinct primary amino acid structures with only minimal homology to other cytokine(More)
The novel cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 has been implicated in many infectious and autoimmune settings, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Consistent with its proinflammatory effects on bone, osteoblast cells are highly responsive to IL-17, particularly in combination with other inflammatory cytokines. To better understand the spectrum of activities controlled(More)
Nitric oxide is believed to be a prominent mediator of inflammation based in part on the correlative expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene in various pathologies. The resulting high output of the highly reactive molecule nitric oxide is then believed to play an important role in the evolving inflammatory response. Studies have shown(More)
Interleukin (IL)-17 is the founding member of an emerging family of inflammatory cytokines whose functions remain poorly defined. IL-17 has been linked to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, and numerous studies implicate this cytokine in inflammation-induced bone loss. It is clear that a major function of IL-17 is to amplify the immune response by(More)
IL-17 is the defining cytokine of a newly-described "Th17" population that plays critical roles in mediating inflammation and autoimmunity. The IL-17/IL-17 receptor superfamily is the most recent class of cytokines and receptors to be described, and until recently very little was known about its function or molecular biology. However, in the last year(More)
IL-17 is the founding member of a novel family of proinflammatory cytokines that defines a new class of CD4+ effector T cells, termed "Th17." Mounting evidence suggests that IL-17 and Th17 cells cause pathology in autoimmunity, but little is known about mechanisms of IL-17RA signaling. IL-17 through its receptor (IL-17RA) activates genes typical of innate(More)
PURPOSE Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common cancer worldwide, has a dismal outcome partly due to the poor identification of early-stage HCC. Currently, one third of HCC patients present with low serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, the only clinically available diagnostic marker for HCC. The aim of this study was to identify new diagnostic molecular(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify mutations in GATA4 gene in Chinese patients with sporadic congenital heart defects (CHD). METHODS Single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was performed to screen for mutations in all six exons and exon-intron boundaries of GATA4 in 31 individuals with CHD. Direct DNA sequencing was used to identify the specific(More)