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The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) in settings of immunodeficiency. Although disseminated, vaginal, and oral candidiasis are all caused by C. albicans species, host defense against C. albicans varies by anatomical location. T helper 1 (Th1) cells have long been implicated in defense against candidiasis,(More)
Interferon-gamma is key in limiting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here we show that vaccination triggered an accelerated interferon-gamma response by CD4(+) T cells in the lung during subsequent M. tuberculosis infection. Interleukin 23 (IL-23) was essential for the accelerated response, for early cessation of bacterial growth and for establishment(More)
IL-17 is the founding member of a novel family of proinflammatory cytokines that defines a new class of CD4+ effector T cells, termed "Th17." Mounting evidence suggests that IL-17 and Th17 cells cause pathology in autoimmunity, but little is known about mechanisms of IL-17RA signaling. IL-17 through its receptor (IL-17RA) activates genes typical of innate(More)
The novel cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 has been implicated in many infectious and autoimmune settings, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Consistent with its proinflammatory effects on bone, osteoblast cells are highly responsive to IL-17, particularly in combination with other inflammatory cytokines. To better understand the spectrum of activities controlled(More)
IL-17 is the defining cytokine of a newly-described "Th17" population that plays critical roles in mediating inflammation and autoimmunity. The IL-17/IL-17 receptor superfamily is the most recent class of cytokines and receptors to be described, and until recently very little was known about its function or molecular biology. However, in the last year(More)
Interleukin (IL)-17 is the founding member of a novel family of inflammatory cytokines. Although produced by T cells, IL-17 activates genes and signals typical of innate immune mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-1beta. Most IL-17 target genes characterized to date are cytokines or neutrophil-attractive chemokines. Our recent(More)
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), the professional producers of type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta), play a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune responses against viral infections. Although functional impairment of circulating pDCs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients has been reported previously, the mechanism responsible for these defects(More)
IL-17A and its receptor are the founding members of a recently described cytokine family, with unique sequences and functions in the immune system and elsewhere. Consisting of six ligands (IL-17A-F) and five receptors (IL-17RA-IL-17RE) in mammals, these molecules have distinct primary amino acid structures with only minimal homology to other cytokine(More)
IL-17 mediates essential inflammatory responses in host defense and autoimmunity. The IL-17A-IL-17F signaling complex is composed of IL-17RA and IL-17RC, both of which are necessary for signal transduction. To date, the specific contribution of IL-17RC to downstream signaling remains poorly understood. To define the regions within the IL-17RC cytoplasmic(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in sensing and initiating innate antiviral response. In this study, we first investigated the expression of TLR1-10 mRNA transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from chronic HBV-infected (CHB) patients and healthy donors by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4 and(More)