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The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) in settings of immunodeficiency. Although disseminated, vaginal, and oral candidiasis are all caused by C. albicans species, host defense against C. albicans varies by anatomical location. T helper 1 (Th1) cells have long been implicated in defense against candidiasis,(More)
Interferon-gamma is key in limiting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Here we show that vaccination triggered an accelerated interferon-gamma response by CD4(+) T cells in the lung during subsequent M. tuberculosis infection. Interleukin 23 (IL-23) was essential for the accelerated response, for early cessation of bacterial growth and for establishment(More)
Nitric oxide is believed to be a prominent mediator of inflammation based in part on the correlative expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene in various pathologies. The resulting high output of the highly reactive molecule nitric oxide is then believed to play an important role in the evolving inflammatory response. Studies have shown(More)
PURPOSE Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common cancer worldwide, has a dismal outcome partly due to the poor identification of early-stage HCC. Currently, one third of HCC patients present with low serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, the only clinically available diagnostic marker for HCC. The aim of this study was to identify new diagnostic molecular(More)
Interleukin (IL)-17 is the founding member of an emerging family of inflammatory cytokines whose functions remain poorly defined. IL-17 has been linked to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, and numerous studies implicate this cytokine in inflammation-induced bone loss. It is clear that a major function of IL-17 is to amplify the immune response by(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify mutations in GATA4 gene in Chinese patients with sporadic congenital heart defects (CHD). METHODS Single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was performed to screen for mutations in all six exons and exon-intron boundaries of GATA4 in 31 individuals with CHD. Direct DNA sequencing was used to identify the specific(More)
IL-17 is the founding member of a novel family of proinflammatory cytokines that defines a new class of CD4+ effector T cells, termed "Th17." Mounting evidence suggests that IL-17 and Th17 cells cause pathology in autoimmunity, but little is known about mechanisms of IL-17RA signaling. IL-17 through its receptor (IL-17RA) activates genes typical of innate(More)
IL-17A and its receptor are the founding members of a recently described cytokine family, with unique sequences and functions in the immune system and elsewhere. Consisting of six ligands (IL-17A-F) and five receptors (IL-17RA-IL-17RE) in mammals, these molecules have distinct primary amino acid structures with only minimal homology to other cytokine(More)
In order to further explore the mechanisms by which activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mitoKATP) confers neuroprotection, we investigated the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) in in vivo and in vitro models. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)(More)
Ovarian cancer is the major gynaecologic malignancy and the leading cause of death in gynaecological cancer. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly expressed in many malignant cancers and involved in metastasis including ovarian cancer. The early detection of peritoneal metastases in epithelial ovarian cancer may be more important in clinical care. HSP27, a(More)