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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a result of replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) predominantly in CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages. However, most of these cells in vivo are immunologically quiescent, a condition restricting HIV-1 replication. Vpr is an HIV-1 virion protein suspected to enhance HIV-1 replication in(More)
The pattern of neurological disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was investigated using a macaque model of acquired immune defiency syndrome (AIDS). Seven of nine macaques inoculated with neurovirulent simian imunodeficiency virus (SIVmac ) developed AIDS within 3 months. Four of these had(More)
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are frequently used in cosmetics, paints, sunscreens and the like. Recent studies have demonstrated that nano-TiO2 might be deleterious for the male reproductive function. However, the effects of pubertal nano-TiO2 exposure on testosterone (T) synthesis and spermatogenesis remained to be elucidated. Here, we(More)
PURPOSE Homocysteine (Hcy) has been shown to induce oxidative stress and apoptosis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been reported to have protective effects on endothelial function. However, effects of AMPK activation on Hcy-induced EPCs injury remain to be determined. In this study, we examined the effect of(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacogenetics-based algorithms would be especially desirable for patients undergoing heart valve replacement (HVR), who are particularly sensitive to warfarin during the initial treatment phase following surgery. We aimed to derive a warfarin dosing algorithm from data of Chinese patients undergoing HVR, and to compare it with previously(More)
By subcutaneous inoculation of SHIV(KU-2) in the hands of macaques, we developed a model of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) occupational infection due to needle-stick injury and used the model to determine whether neutralizing serum to SHIV administered before or after virus inoculation could either prevent or abort infection, respectively. Six(More)
AIM Accumulating evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a fundamental role in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. Atorvastatin is known to exert pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular system. This study was designed to examine the effect of atorvastatin on homocysteine (Hcy)-induced activation of ER stress and the(More)
RATIONALE Antibody-targeted delivery of imaging agents can enhance the sensitivity and accuracy of current imaging techniques. Similarly, homing of effector cells to disease sites increases the efficacy of regenerative cell therapy while reducing the number of cells required. Currently, targeting can be achieved via chemical conjugation to specific(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) of virus-specific genes has emerged as a potential antiviral strategy. In order to suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) expression and replication, a retrovirus-based RNAi system was developed, which utilized the U6-RNA polymerase III (Pol III) promoter to drive efficient expression and deliver the HBV-specific short hairpin RNAs(More)
A chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-4) containing the tat, rev, vpu, and env genes of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in a genetic background of SIVmac239 was used to develop an animal model in which a primate lentivirus expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein caused acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in macaques. An SHIV-infected pig-tailed(More)