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Neurotransmitter released from neurons is known to signal to neighbouring neurons and glia. Here we demonstrate an additional signalling pathway in which glutamate is released from astrocytes and causes an NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor-mediated increase in neuronal calcium. Internal calcium was elevated and glutamate release stimulated by application(More)
Hippocampal CA1 homosynaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) is expressed specifically at activated synapses. Increased insertion of postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) appears to be crucial for CA1 LTP. However, the mechanism underlying AMPAR insertion during LTP remains largely unknown. We now report that(More)
Cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons have crucial roles in the development and function of the cerebral cortex. In rodents, nearly all neocortical interneurons are generated from the subcortical ganglionic eminences. In humans and nonhuman primates, however, the developmental origin of neocortical GABAergic interneurons remains unclear. Here we show(More)
Mutations in alpha-synuclein, a protein highly enriched in presynaptic terminals, have been implicated in the expression of familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) whereas native alpha-synuclein is a major component of intraneuronal inclusion bodies characteristic of PD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Although overexpression of human(More)
Akt (also known as PKB), a serine/threonine kinase involved in diverse signal-transduction pathways, is highly expressed in the brain. Akt is known to have a strong antiapoptotic action and thereby to be critically involved in neuronal survival, but its potential role in the dynamic modulation of synaptic transmission is unknown. Here we report that Akt(More)
Dopamine-glutamate interactions in the neostriatum determine psychostimulant action, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here we found that dopamine stimulation by cocaine enhances a heteroreceptor complex formation between dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) and NMDA receptor NR2B subunits in the neostriatum in vivo. The D2R-NR2B interaction is(More)
This study investigated whether congenital amusia, a neuro-developmental disorder of musical perception, also has implications for speech intonation processing. In total, 16 British amusics and 16 matched controls completed five intonation perception tasks and two pitch threshold tasks. Compared with controls, amusics showed impaired performance on(More)
Dopamine D1-like receptors, composed of D1 and D5 receptors, have been documented to modulate glutamate-mediated fast excitatory synaptic neurotransmission. Here, we report that dopamine D1 receptors modulate NMDA glutamate receptor-mediated functions through direct protein-protein interactions. Two regions in the D1 receptor carboxyl tail can directly and(More)
The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that controls translational efficiency and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that FMRP is involved in dopamine (DA) modulation of synaptic potentiation. AMPA glutamate receptor subtype 1 (GluR1) surface expression and phosphorylation in response to D1 receptor stimulation(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota that affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including pre-term birth and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of vaginal microbial(More)