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Many of the important changes in evolution are regulatory in nature. Sequenced bacterial genomes point to flexibility in regulatory circuits but we do not know how regulation is remodeled in evolving bacteria. Here, we study the regulatory changes that emerge in populations evolving under controlled conditions during experimental evolution of Escherichia(More)
In plants, RNA silencing plays a key role in antiviral defense. To counteract host defense, plant viruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) that target different effector molecules in the RNA silencing pathway. Evidence has shown that plants also encode endogenous suppressors of RNA silencing (ESRs) that function in proper regulation of RNA(More)
Speech productions of 40 English- and 40 Japanese-speaking children (aged 2-5) were examined and compared with the speech produced by 20 adult speakers (10 speakers per language). Participants were recorded while repeating words that began with "s" and "sh" sounds. Clear language-specific patterns in adults' speech were found, with English speakers(More)
l-Serine is a nonessential amino acid, but plays a crucial role as a building block for cell growth. Currently, l-serine production is mainly dependent on enzymatic or cellular conversion. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Escherichia coli that can fermentatively produce l-serine from glucose. To accumulate l-serine, sdaA encoding the l-serine(More)
Three permeases, Mtr, TnaB, and AroP, are involved in the uptake of L-tryptophan in Escherichia coli. These permeases possess individual function for cell transportation and metabolism, and affect extracellular L-tryptophan accumulation. In this study, by knocking out three tryptophan permeases separately and simultaneously in L-tryptophan-producing strain(More)
HIGHLIGHTS Degree of lateralization for grasping predicts the maturity of the language production system in young, typically-developing children. In this report we provide compelling evidence for the relationship between right hand grasp-to-mouth (i.e., feeding) movements and language development. Specifically, we show that children (4-5 years old) who are(More)
Both English and Japanese have two voiceless sibilant fricatives, an anterior fricative /s/ contrasting with a more posterior fricative /∫/. When children acquire sibilant fricatives, English children typically substitute [s] for /∫/, whereas Japanese children typically substitute [∫] for /s/. This study examined English- and Japanese-speaking adults'(More)
BACKGROUND The fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, is an efficient biocontrol agent against a variety of agricultural pests. A thorough understanding of the basic principles of insect-fungus interactions may enable the genetic modification of Beauveria bassiana to enhance its virulence. However, the molecular mechanism of insect response to Beauveria(More)
Executive Function (EF) refers to important socio-emotional and cognitive skills that are known to be highly correlated with both academic and life success. EF is a blanket term that is considered to include self-regulation, working memory, and planning. Recent studies have shown a relationship between EF and motor control. The emergence of motor control(More)
Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are a class of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that utilize a simple and predictable modality to recognize target DNA. This unique characteristic allows for the rapid assembly of artificial TALEs, with high DNA binding specificity, to any target DNA sequences for the creation of customizable(More)