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Recent work has suggested that rates of introgression should be inversely related to levels of gene flow because introgressed populations cannot be 'rescued' by intraspecific gene flow if it is too low. Mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA (mtDNA and cpDNA) experience very different levels of gene flow in conifers due to their contrasted maternal and paternal(More)
The use of relational database management systems (RDBMSs) to store and query XML data has attracted considerable interest with a view to leveraging their powerful and reliable data management services. Due to the mismatch between the relational and XML data models, it is necessary to first shred and load the XML data into relational tables, and then(More)
A recent model has shown that, during range expansion of one species in a territory already occupied by a related species, introgression should take place preferentially from the resident species towards the invading species and genome components experiencing low rates of gene flow should introgress more readily than those experiencing high rates of gene(More)
Iron accumulates progressively in the brain with age, and iron-induced oxidative stress has been considered as one of the initial causes for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Based on the role of hepcidin in peripheral organs and its expression in the brain, we hypothesized that this peptide has a role to reduce iron in the brain and(More)
Anti-parkinsonian agents, pramipexole (PPX) and ropinirole (ROP), have been reported to possess neuroprotective properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underlying neuroprotection afforded by the D3-preferring receptor agonists remain poorly understood. The present study demonstrates that incubation of primary mesencephalic cultures with PPX(More)
It has been recently shown that at-risk tissue exhibits exaggerated T(2)⁎-weighted MRI signal increases during transient oxygen challenge (OC), suggesting that the tissue is still metabolically active. This study further characterized the effects of transient OC on T(2)⁎-weighted MRI in permanent focal stroke rats (N=8) using additional quantitative(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ligustilide, the main lipophilic component of Danggui, has been reported to protect the brain against ischaemic injury. However, the mechanisms are unknown. Here, we investigated the roles of erythropoietin (EPO) and the stress-induced protein RTP801 in neuroprotection provided by ligustilide against ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage(More)
Mutations in the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2), underlie a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly, Rett Syndrome (RTT), a severe autism spectrum disorder that affects approximately one in 10,000 female live births. Because mutations in the Mecp2 gene occur in the germ cells with onset of neurological symptoms occurring(More)
Primary astrocyte cultures are the most commonly used in vitro model for neurobiological studies. We speculated that different protocols might induce differences not only in the percentage of astrocytes but also in their biological characteristics. In this study, we investigated the effects of four major protocols on the purity of astrocytes, cell(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease in which interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells have been critically involved. We show that in patients with RA, the expression of a multifunctional regulator β-arrestin1 was significantly up-regulated in peripheral and synovial CD4(+) T cells, which correlated well with active phases(More)