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Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play important roles in regulating plant innate immune responses. In a genetic screen to search for mutants with constitutive defense responses, we identified multiple alleles of mpk4 and mekk1 that exhibit cell death and constitutive defense responses. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis(More)
p63 is critical for epithelial development yet little is known about the transcriptional programmes it regulates. By characterising transcriptional changes and cellular effects following modulation of p63 expression, we have defined a vital role for p63 in cellular adhesion. Knockdown of p63 expression caused downregulation of cell adhesion-associated(More)
Minute virus of canines (MVC) is a member of the genus Bocavirus in the family Parvoviridae. We have molecularly cloned and sequenced the 5'- and 3'-terminal palindromes of MVC. The MVC genome, 5,404 nucleotides (nt) in length, shared an identity of 52.6% and 52.1% with that of human bocavirus and bovine parvovirus, respectively. It had distinct palindromic(More)
Antimicrobial peptides, such as LL-37, are found both in nonvertebrates and vertebrates, where they represent important components of innate immunity. Bacterial infections at epithelial surfaces are associated with substantial induction of LL-37 expression, which allows efficient lysis of the invading microbes. Peptide-mediated lysis results in the release(More)
A digital image analysis algorithm based color and morphological features was developed to identify the six varieties (ey7954, syz3, xs11, xy5968, xy9308, z903) rice seeds which are widely planted in Zhejiang Province. Seven color and fourteen morphological features were used for discriminant analysis. Two hundred and forty kernels used as the training data(More)
Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are essential for growth and survival of all cells. When polyamine biosynthesis is inhibited, there is up-regulation of import. The mammalian polyamine transport system is unknown. We have previously shown that the heparan sulfate (HS) side chains of recycling glypican-1 (Gpc-1) can sequester spermine, that(More)
The RNA transcription profile of the goose parvovirus (GPV) was determined, and it is a surprising hybrid of features of the Parvovirus and Dependovirus genera of the Parvovirinae subfamily of the Parvoviridae. Similar to the Dependovirus adeno-associated virus type 5, RNAs transcribed from the GPV upstream P9 promoter, which encode the viral nonstructural(More)
Kaposi sarcoma (KS), an angioproliferative disease associated with Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, harbors a diversity of cell types ranging from endothelial to mesenchymal cells of unclear origin. We developed a three-dimensional cell model for KSHV infection and used it to demonstrate that KSHV induces transcriptional reprogramming of(More)
New therapies based on gene transfer and protein delivery require a better understanding of the basic mechanisms of macromolecular membrane transport. We have studied cellular uptake of macromolecular polyanions, i.e. DNA and glycosaminoglycans, and a polybasic HIV-Tat derived peptide (GRKKRRQRRRPPQC) using fluorescence assisted cell sorting and confocal(More)
We have generated a quantitative transcription profile of human bocavirus type 1 (HBoV1) by transfecting a nearly full-length clone in human lung epithelial A549 cells as well as in a replication competent system in 293 cells. The overall transcription profile of HBoV1 is similar to that of two other members of genus Bocavirus, minute virus of canines and(More)