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Society, and the CIRANO seminar in Montreal for helpful comments. We are grateful to Paul Michaud for his support with the CDA/Spectrum database. We especially thank Russ Wermers for providing us with the characteristic-adjusted stock returns reported in DGTW (1997). We acknowledge the financial support from Mitsui Life Center in acquiring the CDA/Spectrum(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) stimulate feeding, whereas NPY also facilitates the estrogen-mediated preovulatory GnRH surge. In addition to regulating reproductive function, estrogen also acts as an anorexigenic hormone, although it is not yet known which hypothalamic neurons are involved in this process. We hypothesize that(More)
NOTE: International Finance Discussion Papers are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critical comment. References in publications to International Finance Discussion Papers (other than an acknowledgment that the writer has had access to unpublished material) should be cleared Abstract: We examine the relationships between credit(More)
The honeybee waggle dance, through which foragers advertise the existence and location of a food source to their hive mates, is acknowledged as the only known form of symbolic communication in an invertebrate. However, the suggestion, that different species of honeybee might possess distinct 'dialects' of the waggle dance, remains controversial.(More)
The center for circadian rhythms in mammals is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, composed of single cell circadian oscillators driven by a transcriptional/translational feedback loop where clock proteins drive clock gene expression. These genes are expressed in peripheral tissues and several brain areas outside the SCN. It is likely(More)
Knowledge of how the brain achieves its diverse central control of basic physiology is severely limited by the virtual absence of appropriate cell models. Isolation of clonal populations of unique peptidergic neurons from the hypothalamus will facilitate these studies. Herein we describe the mass immortalization of mouse primary hypothalamic cells in(More)
The mammalian hypothalamus comprises an array of phenotypically distinct cell types that interpret peripheral signals of energy status and, in turn, elicits an appropriate response to maintain energy homeostasis. We used a clonal representative hypothalamic cell model expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC; N-43/5) to study changes in AMP-activated protein(More)
It is established that increases in neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression are associated with hyperphagia and obesity. These effects can be reversed by estrogen, a recognized anorexigen. We found that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) regulates biphasic NPY gene expression in a clonal, immortalized hypothalamic cell line, N-38, through estrogen receptor (ER) action at the(More)