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Assessment and characterization of gut microbiota has become a major research area in human disease, including type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide. To carry out analysis on gut microbial content in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed a protocol for a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) and undertook a two-stage(More)
—In the research field of image processing, mean squared error (MSE) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) are extensively adopted as the objective visual quality metrics, mainly because of their simplicity for calculation and optimization. However , it has been well recognized that these pixel-based difference measures correlate poorly with the human(More)
Signaling pathways invoke interplays between forward signaling and feedback to drive robust cellular response. In this study, we address the dynamics of growth factor signaling through profiling of protein phosphorylation and gene expression, demonstrating the presence of a kinetically defined cluster of delayed early genes that function to attenuate the(More)
Adult mammalian testis is a source of pluripotent stem cells. However, the lack of specific surface markers has hampered identification and tracking of the unrecognized subset of germ cells that gives rise to multipotent cells. Although embryonic-like cells can be derived from adult testis cultures after only several weeks in vitro, it is not known whether(More)
Despite its early discovery and high sequence homology to the other VEGF family members, the biological functions of VEGF-B remain poorly understood. We revealed here a novel function for VEGF-B as a potent inhibitor of apoptosis. Using gene expression profiling of mouse primary aortic smooth muscle cells, and confirming the results by real-time PCR using(More)
SNAREs are essential for intracellular membrane fusion. Using EPR, we determined the structure of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the vesicle (v)-SNARE Snc2p involved in trafficking in yeast. Structural features of the TMD were used to design a v-SNARE mutant in which about half of the TMD was deleted. Liposomes containing this mutant induced outer(More)
Eukaryotic proteasome consists of a core particle (CP), which degrades unfolded protein, and a regulatory particle (RP), which is responsible for recognition, ATP-dependent unfolding, and translocation of polyubiquitinated substrate protein. In the archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, the RP is a homohexameric complex of proteasome-activating nucleotidase(More)
BACKGROUND This randomized controlled trial compares the efficacy and safety of olanzapine vs haloperidol, as well as the quality of life of patients taking these drugs, in patients with bipolar mania. METHODS The design consisted of 2 successive, 6-week, double-blind periods and compared flexible dosing of olanzapine (5-20 mg/d, n = 234) with haloperidol(More)
We carried out a genome-wide association study of type-2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of South Asian ancestry. Our discovery set included 5,561 individuals with T2D (cases) and 14,458 controls drawn from studies in London, Pakistan and Singapore. We identified 20 independent SNPs associated with T2D at P < 10(-4) for testing in a replication sample of(More)
The molecular and cellular pathways that support the maintenance and stability of tumor neovessels are not well defined. The efficacy of microtubule-disrupting agents, such as combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P), in inducing rapid regression of specific subsets of tumor neovessels has opened up new avenues of research to identify factors that support tumor(More)