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OBJECTIVE To examine annual changes in refraction and ocular components around the onset of myopia in Chinese children. DESIGN Longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS Twins aged 7 to 15 years in 2006 from the Guangzhou Twin Registry. METHODS Participants underwent eye examinations annually from 2006 to 2010. Years were defined (+1 or -1) relative to the(More)
It has been well recognized that myopia more likely affects East Asians, particularly the Japanese and Chinese population. Although some studies have reported the prevalence of myopia in children living in mainland China, most of these studies are based on subjects with unknown representativeness, non-uniform definition, and measurement methods. A higher(More)
PURPOSE To assess the distribution and heritability of intraocular pressure (IOP) in Chinese children. METHODS Twins aged 8 to 16 years were recruited from the Guangzhou Twin Registry. IOP was measured in each twin and co-twin together, with a handheld tonometer by the same operator. Zygosity was determined based on genotyping with 16 polymorphic markers(More)
PURPOSE To determine the relationship between myopia in parents and their children in a sample of urban Chinese children. METHODS Random sampling was used to identify a population-based sample of 4364 children aged 5 to 15 years from Guangzhou. Children had a comprehensive ocular examination including cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) refraction (ARK-30;(More)
PURPOSE To assess the impact of severity of parental myopia on myopia in Chinese children. METHODS Children aged 12 to 15 years were identified from a population-based sample in Guangzhou. Children's myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent refraction of ≤0.5 D based on cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction. Using a questionnaire reported by(More)
The high prevalence of myopia and its public health and clinical consequences make prevention of myopia a top priority. Traditional approaches to prevention have been based on reducing accommodative load, and have generally been unsuccessful. Only treatment with atropine eye-drops has produced clinically significant effects, which are however of limited(More)
Defining whether skin pigmentation influences vitamin D photosynthesis is important for delivering accurate public health messages. Current evidence is contradictory. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature to examine the association between skin pigmentation and change in blood concentrations of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(More)
IMPORTANCE Myopia has reached epidemic levels in parts of East and Southeast Asia. However, there is no effective intervention to prevent the development of myopia. OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of increasing time spent outdoors at school in preventing incident myopia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cluster randomized trial of children in grade 1(More)
IMPORTANCE Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common cancers in fair-skinned populations. Their incidence continues to increase in many countries. Exposure to UV radiation (UVR) is the primary cause of NMSC, although the pattern of exposure that gives rise to different types of NMSC appears to vary. OBJECTIVE To examine dose-response(More)